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    Light sources lose themselves when penetrating material energy. It does not matter whether the material to be penetrated is in either gaseous form or in the solid state. Only in a pure vacuum, light sources are spreading unchecked.


    Accent lighting
    Accent lighting is used to emphasize individual spatial zones or objects with illuminances above the level of - general lighting. It emphasizes space areas or individual objects. Accentuating light breaks up the room atmosphere. Accent lighting lives off different illumination levels: it plays with strong contrasts and deep shadows, varying brightness and light, e.g. pictures, furniture, art objects.


    Accommodation refers to the adaptation of the eye to project sharp images of objects at different distances.


    Action spectrum
    Action spectrum is the spectral sensitivity for a light-induced effect. There are action spectra for various biological effects, such as the occurrence of sunburn by UV or for vitamin D formation by UV-B.


    Adaptation is the ability of the eye to adapt to different luminances (change from light to dark) in the visual field. The adaptation process and thus the adaptation time are determined by the luminance at the beginning and end of the change in brightness, and therefore it may take several minutes for the eyes to get used to the new light conditions. The adaptation of the eye is performed by the enlargement or reduction of the pupil in response to the change in sensitivity of the retinal receptors and the interaction between rods and cone vision.



    An intermediate adapter piece which is used to connect various mechanical or electrical devices (such as light).


    Adaptive color mixing
    An adaptive color mixing is defined as the mixing of colors by the addition of spectral ranges. The adaptive color mixture is given by the three-color theory, the complementary colors of the primary colors. White light is generated by the uniform mixing of the three primary colors.


    Alabaster has a visual resemblance to marble. If it is appropriately cut so thin, it looks like frosted glass. It is very translucent and provides a warm and cozy light.


    Amalgam technology
    Lamps tune up technically almost the same as the tube types. By equipping an outer glass or plastic bulb, they look very similar to conventional incandescent bulbs. Due to this construction, the operating temperature of the enclosed interior lamps is considerably higher than other types of lamps. However achieving maximum light output requires for amalgam technology to be used.


    An anti-dazzle refers to the shielding of direct light components in the emission of a light fixture. In this case, the cone of light of a lamp is limited to the main direction of emission. Through this anti-dazzle scattered components are reduced or avoided.


    Antique lamps
    Ancient lamps (also known as Antique Lamps) refer to a particular style. Antique lamps are regarded as "trimmed" in their appearance and remind us of Chandeliers from old mansions. With a flamboyant, old-world charm, antique lamps provide the right light and mood.


    Architectural lighting
    Architectural lighting refers to the lighting concepts of daylight and artificial light. The technical solutions are in most cases part of the facade design.


    Art Nouveau
    The actually short-lasting period of Art Nouveau from 1890 to the mid-20s of the last century brings lines and curves in perfect harmony. Where initially flower decors and curved lines predominated, geometrical forms took over later on without any reference to historical events. There are elements derived from nature, which are often highlighted by color trims. Characteristic of the Art Nouveau style are line, serpentine, everything flowing, plants, moving water, swan, hair that is stiff, lifeless, sterile to an abstract ornament. It is an area of art, two-dimensional, without any illusion of space.


    In general, for many subjects in art or in the design of facades, displays, gardens, and so on, it is not a symmetrical layout at best, but one that comes close to the golden ratio (approximately 5:8). Sometimes this is also true in the natural sciences or sociology. With respect to light distribution of a different strong light beam from a light source it is referred to as an asymmetrical light distribution.

    The basic lighting - even general lighting - is the general lighting that evenly illuminates a room. It ensures that the architecture, the objects and people in the room can be seen and also allows for orientation. Special visual tasks at individual locations in space, for example reading or computer work, do not take the backlight into consideration. In order for the light atmosphere not to become monotonous, it is useful to provide different light sources and combine the light of the general lighting and area lighting, as well as accent lighting interchangeably.


    Fluorescent lamps and discharge lamps must be operated with ballasts to limit the current. Conventional, low-loss, and electronic ballasts are suitable for this task. A qualitatively important operating parameter is the power loss, which is added together with the lamp power to the power system.


    The base is the part of a lamp which is rotated or plugged into the corresponding socket of a lamp. It gives the lamp support and hide connections to non-transformers or ballasts.


    Base light
    For outdoor lighting, there are the so-called base lights. They correspond to mast lights in terms of appearance and lighting effects, but are instead mounted on a long pole on walls or pillars.


    Bathroom lighting
    Only special luminaires are suitable for use in a humid environment: bathroom lighting. They are safe when they correspond to the requirements described in the DIN VDE 0100 part 701 for the respective scope of protection and safety class. Optimal bathroom lighting requires a good general light that illuminates the entire room, and additional lighting located at the mirror. Glare-free lighting on the left and right side of the mirror to ensure no formation of unwanted shadows underneath the eyes, nose or chin.


    Beam angle
    The beam angle is the angle of the light beam from a light or reflector lamp. It is determined by the design of the reflector. Lights with a small beam produce small angles, and brightly lit areas.

    Light sources with wide beam angles result in large but less brightly lit areas. The opening angle of the luminous intensity drops to half of the maximum value.


    Bedroom lamp / bedroom light
    The ideal bedroom lighting is made up of different lights: reading light whether as a table lamp on the bedside table or a permanently attached wall lamp, ceiling lamps for general lighting, cabinet lighting, wall lamps or any other lamps that fit depending on the arrangement of the bedroom style.


    Bioluminescence refers to the phenomenon of light production by living organisms. It is the result of biochemical reactions within cells, in which the chemical energy is released as light sources. The best known examples are fireflies and luminescent jellyfish as unicellular organisms that are responsible for marine luminescence.


    Blend caps
    Name for rectangular arranged barn doors, as they are mainly used in stage lights to reduce direct glare. Blend caps are rectangular arranged barn doors. Mainly these come at stage light used to reduce direct glare.


    Glare occurs in two forms and causes disruption in either case. Direct glare from luminaires can be avoided e.g. by shielding the light source at predetermined angles to the observer, by light scattering, or light-directing components. Reflected glare occurs where high luminance is reflected from shiny surfaces, such as art paper, in the direction of the observer.


    Body clock
    Also called biological or physiological clock. Its running is genetically predetermined, and is significantly influenced by light. Light is therefore the most important timer for the circadian clock, it synchronizes the internal clock with the external day/night cycle. The state of the internal clock, i.e., the phase of the biological clock, is the sum of the superposition of all the body's circadian rhythms. The phase can be largely inferred from the course of melatonin.


    Bollards are path luminaries with a stand pipe (aluminum or plastic), a light-emitting unit in the upper part of the pipe or as a termination attached to a bottom plate or anchored in the ground. They spend their light from a low mounting height of 1 to 1.5 meters. They usually have a very simple and modern form.


    Refraction (breaking) refers to direction changes of light when switching between media of different densities. The refractive index indicates the refractive power of a material.


    Bridge arm light
    Bridge arm lights, also called bright lights, are equipped as floor, table or wall lights with a slightly adjustable arm, which is also referred to as the "Bridge". These lights are particularly suitable for reading.



    The refraction of light or the reflection of directional point light sources on shiny surfaces or transparent materials create the light effect of brilliance.


    Burning position
    The focal position defines both the allowable and not allowable range for lamp operation. In the notation, for example, h 105, the letter indicates the lamp position and the number the half angle of the permissible range.


    BUS system
    Conventionally, light is manually operated by a wall switch. Thus there are, for example, the on / off or dimmed functions. More extensive and intelligent circuits can be automated by building management systems. So, for example, a higher-level BUS system controls blinds, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, sound system, etc.! Most lights or light systems can be easily integrated into building management systems.

    Calculating lighting
    It requires various information about windows, use of space, spatial shape, etc. for the recommended illumination intensity to be properly calculated. Lighting has a major influence on the atmosphere and mood thus exerting a significant impact on the well-being.


    cd = candelas; 1 cd is defined as the light intensity emitted from a monochromatic light source having an irradiance of 1/683 W at 555 nm. Unit of luminous intensity; Basic size of lighting technology.


    (Garden) Lanterns, in which several filaments sit or hang on a pole. Mainly used in the garden, on squares and paths and in courtyards and terraces.


    Canopies are components of hanging lights that cover the connection point.


    Capacitive circuit
    A circuit is compensated by arranged series with a ballast capacitor at the driven gear of an inductive discharge lamp (CCG, LCG). Here, the circuit is overcompensated, so that the second lamp can be operated in parallel. (Double switch).


    Ceiling mounted light
    Ceiling mounted lights / ceiling-mounted luminaires are mounted directly on the ceiling. The luminous body is visible in contrast to the ceiling light, thus becoming part of the arrangement and should match the personal style and taste.


    Chandelier / chandelier
    A chandelier (historical: luster) is a lighting element that usually hangs from the ceiling and produces a glistening, elegant impression with an unusual play of light through the use of multiple light sources and elements for light refraction (usually made of precious stone, glass or plastic).


    Children's lamp
    Children will like the most colorful and original designs even for their children's lamp. A baby lamp must also meet its role as dispensers of light.


    Christmas lights
    Christmas lights are found in the broadest sense in the public sector (e.g. street lighting at Christmas time). Christmas lights in relation to the Christmas tree are, for example, lights, glowing balls, illuminated stars, etc.


    Christmas tree lighting
    Christmas tree lights are, for example, lights, glowing balls, illuminated stars, etc.





    Chromatic adaptation
    Since the retina is equipped with various types of light-sensitive cells that are sensitive to different spectral ranges, even the "white balance" of the eye can be done through adaptation, chromatic adaptation. If in the new lighting situation a different color temperature prevails, for example through increased amount of red, then the red-sensitive cells will reduce their sensitivity in relation to the others. As a result, the viewer perceives a white surface then also again as white, although it reflects a proportionally increased amount of red light. Adaptive color shift is the difference in the perceived object color due to a change of chromatic adaptation.


    Circadian rhythm
    A biological rhythm with a period of about 24 hours (circa = about from Latin, dies = day). Circadian rhythms are found in almost all living beings - animals and plants. Not only essential functions of the whole organism, but almost every single organ and even every cell have their own genetically predetermined circadian rhythm. It was only from the interaction of the individual cells and organs that the visible or measurable outside circadian rhythms result for the whole organism. Light is the most important timer for the circadian rhythm. Only through his exposure is the rhythm synchronized to the 24 hours of a day. The spelling of "circadian" is in German literature usually (Duden: circadian rhythm).

    Clamp light
    Clamp-on lights owe their name to a clamping device which must give its light grip. It is for both indoor and outdoor lighting (terminal emitters).


    Class 1
    All exposed metal parts are electrically connected together and connected to the mains earth conductor.


    Class 2
    The lamp has by appropriate insulation no metal parts that could lead to accidental electric shock. A ground wire is not present.


    Class 3
    The lamp is operated with low voltage up to 42 V, which is derived from a safety transformer or a battery, or lights for operation with safety extra-low voltage.


    Cleanroom luminaire
    Low load of ambient air particles, high demands on cleanliness and hygiene - these demands for clean rooms must be meet by the lamps being used. Clean room lighting equipment usually have protection class IP 65. They are used in operating rooms, in production halls for the pharmaceutical and food industries, in the microelectronic manufacturing, as well as in computer equipment rooms. Suitable light sources are three-band fluorescent lamps or compact fluorescent lamps.


    Cold light reflector
    Cold light reflectors are transparent to infrared radiation, but not for radiation in the wavelength range of the light. They are made of glass with a multiple coating. Lamps with dichroic reflectors are dichroic reflector lamps (cool beam lamps). They are equipped with these reflectors and radiate a large part of the generated heat radiation to the rear. Compared to normal reflectors, for example, made of aluminum, this heat radiation is emitted with the light going forward. Lamps with dichroic reflectors are well suited for heat-sensitive objects, but they require during installation and planning a special attention to the rear heat.


    Color reproduction
    Depending on the location and visual task artificial light should allow for a correct perception of color (as with natural daylight). The scale of this is known as the color reproduction properties of a light source, which are expressed in stages of "general color reproduction index" or "CRI color reproduction index" (with the unit Ra). The color reproduction index refers to the degree of fit of a body of color with their appearance under the relevant reference light source and is independent of the light color.


    Color temperature
    The color temperature of a lamp (unit kelvin, symbol K) defines the color of this light bulb. The color temperature is measured by means of a blackbody (Plank Emitter) that will be turned from dark red into blue/white by heating, and then compared against the color temperature of the light source.




    Compact fluorescent lamp
    CFLs are particularly small fluorescent lamps and are often referred to as energy-saving lamps. However, the term also includes other energy-saving light sources. The tube in which the gas discharge takes place, compared to other fluorescent lamps, is small and bent, coiled or folded several times in order to accommodate space-saving, hence the prefix compact. Frequently compact fluorescent lamps have an integrated ballast and an Edison base (screw) in order for them to be used instead of incandescent lamps.


    Conductor rail
    Conductor rails create flexibility: At each point of the rail lights and spotlights can be used with an adapter. The adapter provides at the same time the current connection: The current conductor is covered within the rail. There are low-voltage, single-phase and three-phase conductor rails, all of them suitable for ceiling surface mounting, ceiling suspension, and also wall mounting. Several power rails can be connected with cross, angle connections and variable couplings to straight or right angle structures and with some bent rails to circle segments.


    Connected load
    When connecting power, the sum of the rated power consumption of all electrical equipment is indicated.


    Connected load of the lighting
    Regardless of the actual energy consumption, the maximum power of the entire lighting installation is specified as the output terminal of the lighting system.


    It refers to the ability of the perception of constant properties for objects in size, shape, reflectance value, and color to changing environmental conditions in terms of distance, spatial location and lighting.


    Constant light control
    The implementation is done via dimmable lighting systems with the aim to reduce the lighting costs and to increase light comfort and promote individuality. The implementation is carried out by a dimmable electronic ballast (EVG) with 1 .. 10V or DALI interface in combination with the appropriate sensors. In this this context automatic controls, manual controls, and complex controls are easily differentiated. The selection of the appropriate 1 .. 10 V dimming components strongly depends on the particular application. The lighting is controlled depending on the daylight by means of light sensors and thus free daylight is co-used. Savings of up to 60% are thus possible, when using sensors with automatic disconnection, motion detectors and timers even up to 70%.


    Contemporary lamp
    These are lights that correspond to today's modern taste, no antique or rustic lamps, but rather designer lamps, luminaires with aluminum and glass and other modern materials. Modern in this sense is of course always a 'matter of taste' and will certainly also be interpreted differently by each individual.


    It is the difference in the luminance of the color between two objects or an object and its surroundings. With decreasing contrast, the difficulty increases in the visual task.


    Contrast rendition
    The contrast rendition is described by the contrast reproduction factor (CRF), which is defined as the ratio of the luminance contrast of the visual task at a given lighting contrast in the luminance of a reference light.


    Control and regulation
    Control and regulation systems increase the lighting convenience and save energy - for example, if they take into account incoming daylight. This includes all systems that break through the rigid "on or off" pattern. With control and regulation systems light can be managed. They are therefore instruments of light management. The touch control or recall of previously set light scenes on the computer fall under the term "control". The "rules" organize the lighting in a control process, that is, individual commands, such as "Dim Now" are sent to the lights in the target-adjustment: Control engineering organizes the measuring of facts and the reaction to it. It allows, for example, for the light control to be a function of bystanders, or the incoming daylight.


    In electrical engineering, the term converowr is used for rectifiers. Rectifiers convert a type of current in a different order using electronic components: AC to DC (rectifier); DC to AC (inverowr). Converowrs, which can optionally be operated as a DC or AC power converowr, are called inverowrs.



    Cool White
    Light color of 5,300 Kelvin and above are referred to as "cool white" or "daylight white".


    The CRI indicates the color rendering index of a light source. This index is also the degree of color distortion at a given illumination as compared to a reference light source. The optimum color rendering index Ra is 100.


    Crystal is a traditional material for valuable equipment lights. High brilliance is caused by refraction of the light from the point light sources, such as clear candle lamps.


    Crystal glass
    Crystal glass is nowadays the common name for leaded, cut hollow glass with increased light refractive index. However, in the course of history, the term crystal glass stand for a variety of types of glass. In the 15th century crystal clear glass from Venice was called "cristallo". Later, all shiny and colorless glasses with which a high refractive index could be achieved (without losing transparency) were referred to as crystal glass. Another form of crystal is the lead crystal glass. Its invention is attributed to the English Baroque, although there was already leaded glass in the Middle Ages. Lead crystal is a crystal clear glass type that is particularly well suited for cut glass. Crystal glass due to its good light refraction is also often used for high-quality lamps and lights.


    When the viewer looks directly into an unshielded lamp, he/she is blinded by a particularly high light intensity and is therefore limited in his/her vision. To avoid this, having lamp housings, lamellae or screens is recommended, since they shield from the lamps.

    The cut-off angle of a light, indicates the largest angle measured from the horizontal, from which the light source is just no longer visible anymore.


    Cut-off angle
    The cut-off angle refers to the angle from above a directional light source where no reflection is visible.

    DALI is an approach to the management of electronic ballasts for fluorescent lamps with digital control signals. Compared with analog brightness control here the individual control of individual luminaries is possible. The integration into a building management system is simple. Due to the individual addressability, the lights can not only control, but they can also give you feedback and thus enable energy-saving, flexible lamp circuits.


    Digital Addressable Lighting Interface
    The abbreviation for DALI Digital Addressable Lighting Interface; DALI is also like a digital DMX control protocol which is used for lighting control in the architecture. This system allows individual control of lights and can be integrated as a subordinated system within building control systems.


    Dark-light technology
    Special reflectors are used in Dark-light technology. The viewer is not dazzled as long as the lamp is located in the shielding region of the reflector. This technique allows for both maximum viewing comfort and optimum efficiency.


    Dark Sky
    Dark Sky is a term derived from illumination planning, which avoids light pollution in outer space to preclude a brightening of the night sky. In order to avoid light pollution, a special technique is used in the reflector wherein no light emission is carried out above the lamp.


    Daylight white
    Light colors of 5,300 Kelvin and above are called "daylight white" or "cool white".




    Deco-lamps are available as light tubes, light cubes, color changing lights, and even light curtains. A special flair outdoors (farm and garden) brings ball lights, lighting stones, pillars of light, pond and underwater lights. These deco-lamps have something in common: they are more art work than a simple light source.


    Decoration lamp
    Decorative lights create a special atmosphere in your own four walls. With decorative lights innumerable different impressions can be created that are unparalleled. Decorative lights create magical islands of light here and there.


    Decoration light
    Light can be much more than pure light. With the right decoration - light conjures moods and atmosphere, which may make your home in the truest sense of the word a whole new light. There are many types of decoration - light, just enhances the mood depending on the occasion that you want from romantic to shrill. A cozy evening for two can be given that little bit extra with the right decoration light - like a boisterous party.


    Deep Bright
    Strong light for direct illumination from above, e.g. roads, large halls, or football fields.


    "The remit in a lower position" is called degradation. In light engineering, the term describes the decrease of the luminous flux of LEDs. This process usually is very slow and only becomes noticeable after many hours of operation for the old LEDs. The service life of 50,000 hours for LEDs takes into account the degradation: Although LEDs are lit longer, after more than 50,000 hours their luminosity is significantly lower. The aging process can be accelerated by adverse operating conditions: for example, by overheating.


    Design lamp
    Design lamps are always something special. They give any room that extra flair. Whether ceiling, table, wall or floor lamp, designer lamps are an eye-catcher in every apartment. Your extravaganza requires a conscientious choice. Because for a harmonious living experience they need to be integrated into the rest of the atmosphere.


    Designer lamps
    Designer lamps are characterized by a particular and specially designed layout. With modern materials the designers create true works of art for lighting. The mounting, the luminaire glass, all components of designer lamps satisfy the most demanding. Here designers manage the balancing act between functional lighting and art object.


    Design table lamp
    Design table lamps make their special shapes, materials, colors and lighting effects; the light source to a design and furnishing element.


    Desk lamp
    A desk lamp stands or is clamped directly to the table top and can illuminate such a confined space on the desk. A desk lamp must illuminate a working area with an illuminance of 500 lux.


    Scattering materials are e.g. textile screens and opal glass.


    A diffuser reduces glare. A luminaire with diffuser creates a diffused (scattered) light. This light is therefore perceived as very pleasant.


    Diffuse light
    Diffused light refers to relatively large spread emitting surfaces without any particular direction. It does not blind and brings about a uniform and shadow-free lighting. Diffuse light-scattering materials include textile screens and opal glass.


    Dimmable lighting systems were originally developed by a desire for more comfort. In addition, today economic reasons play an increasing role for dimming. In addition to individual control by the user via remote control or push button, control loops come with daylight sensors. In low-voltage halogen lamps which are operated with magnetic transformers, control is available via a phase dimmer. During operation with electronic transformers control is done over a phase dimmer.


    Direct lighting
    It refers to a direct illumination that is created when an object from a light, or a lamp is closely radiated. The light strikes thus directly at the illuminated object. Compact fluorescent lamps (dimming range 3-100%) and fluorescent light (dimming range 1-100%) with electronic ballasts can be dimmed via a 1-10 V interface. It is both a separate laying of tax benefits (for cable lengths> 100 m recommended) as well as a compilation possibly laying in compliance with VDE regulations.


    Discharge lamp
    Discharge lamps have a similar procedure as fluorescent lamps, but there is the filling of a metal vapor-gas under high pressure.

    The design is compact, the light can be focused and intensely radiated. Discharge lamps usually require a ballast and igniter. When switching on the discharge lamp, the light output is even lower, and it usually takes several minutes to reach the operating temperature and thus the maximum light yield is achieved. Discharge lamps only work efficiently when they burn over a long period of time. Therefore, discharge lamps are particularly suitable for road and shop lighting. Discharge lamps cannot be dimmed.


    Defective lamps must be disposed of properly. Incandescent and halogen lamps are made of metal and glass. They do not have any contents that are harmful to the environment at a landfill. The situation is different in fluorescent lamps, energy saving lamps and high intensity discharge lamps, which for physical reasons need mercury vapor for light generation. The Waste Act clearly stipulates that the holder of waste is obliged to carry on with the disposal, but also indicates waste recycling has priority over disposal. According to the official waste catalog discharge lamps are hazardous waste because they contain 15 to 30 milligrams of mercury per lamp. The disposal of discharge lamps from private households takes over municipal hazardous waste collection sites that accept indeed paint residues and batteries. It is important that the lamps are supplied intact to these sites. Local authorities have the opportunity to send the discharge lamps directly to the recycling company.


    Distance law
    It is the law that describes the light intensity as a function of distance from the light source. The illumination will decrease by the square of the distance.


    DMX is a digital control protocol which is used in the stage and event technology, but also used more and more in shops, public facilities or private housing. DMX controllers can be integrated into BUS systems. The acronym stands for Digital Multiplexed.


    Dominant wavelength
    The dominant wavelength is used, among other things, for color classification of LEDs. The dominate wavelength is a measure for the aggregation of a color mixture to a wavelength. Through the extension of a line from the white point to the given locus on the spectral color line the dominate wavelength can be determined within the Norm Valent System. This wavelength is always opposite to the always complimentary wavelength.


    Double-focus wall washers
    A double-focus light serves for the uniform illumination of walls. The optical system of this light concentrates the light in a second focal point and emits only reflected light. This allows a total shielding of the lamp for an improved visual comfort.


    Downlight has established itself as a term for ceiling lights usually round, equipped with reflectors and other optical elements. Downlights, also hinged, are provided for ceiling mounting options such as recessed downlights or surface-mounted downlights. Downlights are also suitable for the interior lighting of cabinets or display cases. Common designs are downlights for low-voltage halogen lamps, high voltage halogen lamps, compact fluorescent lamps and metal halide lamps.


    Downlight / double focus
    The dual focus of downlights consists of an elliptical reflector system and a Dark-light reflector which form the lamp cover. This dual focus provides maximum light output with smallest opening in the ceiling.


    Downlight / double wall washer
    A double wall washer is a lamp which is used for the uniform illumination of parallel walls and corridors.


    Downlight / Wall washer
    When a lamp is equipped with a combination of Dark-light reflector and an ellipsoidal reflector, it provides a high level of visual comfort and gives a uniform wall illumination. A uniform ranking of the wall washers parallel to the wall, however, is a prerequisite.


    Dynamic color
    The lighting is called "dynamic" if it changes over time in relation to one or more parameters (all at the same time with one another), e.g. the illumination, the light color, or the direction of the light. The trend is color dynamic if the light is generated by LEDs or fluorescent lighting for RGB color mixing. The dynamics is performed by appropriately programmed control systems.


    Dynamic lighting
    The lighting is referred to as "dynamic", when it changes over time in relation to one or more parameters (all at the same time with each other) - for example, the illuminance of the light, the light color or the direction of the light. The trend is color dynamic light generated by LEDs or fluorescent lighting for RGB color mixing. The dynamics is monitored by appropriately programmed control systems. Light colors, light power and brightness are often altered to produce or mediate certain moods.  

    Electric light bulb
    Electric light bulbs are typical thermal radiators, in which a filament is heated to incandescence in a sealed glass flask under vacuum or in a gas atmosphere by passage of current. The major portion of the emitted radiation lies in the infrared range, and thus generates heat.





    It is a compact light with optical systems; a projection is possible with gobos and letter patterns in different light equipment. Depending on the illumination optics of the image stage, a distinction can be made between condenser headlights and ellipsoidal headlights.


    Usually caused by the use of electrical devices in electromagnetic fields that affect other electrical equipment. According to the European EMC directive, however, electrical equipment shall not create electromagnetic fields that cause discomfort to other devices.


    Emergency lighting
    One distinguishes the standby - alternative lighting on one hand, and the security lighting on the other. The standby lighting takes over the task of general lighting in case of a power failure, thus ensuring the continuation of important work. Usually this standby electricity generator is used, however, to operate the normal lights. There must be at least 10% of the otherwise recommended illuminance for the activity guaranteed.


    ENEC (Lights on indicator)
    ENEC is the European safety mark for lighting and other electrical products. It is awarded by neutral testing and certification institutes in Europe - in the case of Germany from VDE, from which the Notified Body number "10" appears next to the ENEC mark.


    Energy efficiency classes
    Lamps are assigned energy efficiency classes as indicated by the EU energy label. This energy efficiency class provides information on the current efficiency of the lamps. Energy efficiency classes are specified in steps from A (most efficient) to G (inefficient). Conventional light bulbs usually have energy efficiency class D or E. This inefficiency is the reason for the ban on incandescent lamps. For example energy saving lamps, with energy efficiency classes ranging from A to B, or LED lamps with similar energy efficiency classes, can be used as alternative light sources.


    Energy label
    According to EU Directive 92/75/EEC household lamps have to be operated at mains voltage (incandescent and fluorescent lamps with integrated ballast) and household fluorescent lamps (including single and double-ended lamps and lamps without integrated ballast) must be marked with uniform labeling of products (information of the consumption of energy and other resources). Lamps with specific properties (luminous flux> 6500lm, Power consumption <4W, reflector lamps) or for specific applications (lamps for the generation of non-visible light, battery use, use in devices whose main purpose is not the generation of light) are excluded from the scope of this Directive . The classification of bulbs is done in energy efficiency classes ranging from A (very efficient) - G (inefficient).


    Energy saving lamps
    Energy saving lamps are all lamps with high luminous efficiency. Compact fluorescent lamps have a special meaning for the living area and its surroundings environment. They consume up to 80% less power, compared to incandescent lamps with the same luminous flux and the same brightness. Compact fluorescent lamps with electronic ballast and E14 or E 27 bulbs are to be used on the fly instead of incandescent lamps. Their average lifespan is about 8,000 hours compared to 1,000 hours for incandescent lamps.


    Escape sign luminaires
    Safety signs for escape routes run as backlit safety signs or emergency luminaires. Both must be in accordance with DIN EN 1838 designated quality criteria, especially those regarding color, luminance of the safety color green, luminance ratio, and character height.


    ETL Listed
    The ETL Listed mark from Interowk has over 80,000 listed products, the fastest growing safety seal in the North American market. It states that a product of Interowk, an approved independent testing laboratory, has been tested and meets the relevant safety standards and minimum requirements for sales in North America.


    Eulumdat stands for the European lumen data format that is needed to describe the light distribution of luminaires.


    EVG (electronic ballasts): These are, unlike conventional ballasts, operated in the 30 kHz 3 frequency range. With this operation, we obtain a significant gain in efficiency, which is essentially based on two mechanisms: the reduction of the electrode losses and the increase in light output, which is almost exclusively due to the better conversion of electrical power in the UV lines of the mercury atom at 185 nm and 254 nm. Through the use of modern electronic ballasts could v.a. be significantly increased in the fluorescent family of lighting comfort, economy and safety of operation. Dimmable electronic ballasts allow the continuous and flicker- free dimming of fluorescent lamps in the range of 3% to 100% for CFLs, and 1% to 100% of rod-shaped fluorescent lamps. It is controlled via an electrically isolated 1-10V interface or DALI (Digital Addressable Lighting Interface).


    Examination lamp
    For medical examination a lux illuminance of at least 1,000 is required at the site of examination. For that purpose swiveling and extendable examination lights are used. They have an articulated arm; the handle that allows for them to be moved and positioned, is integrated onto the luminaire head. These lights are available for ceiling and wall mounting or as a portable version on tripods. The light sources used are predominantly high-voltage or low-voltage halogen lamps.


    Explosion-proof luminaires meet, except for the fire protection requirements such as - for example, zone 22 lights - at least protection IP 5X and break safety of the (impact-resistant) light cover. Ex lights are employed in working and storage spaces with vapors, mists, dusts or explosive gases.


    Exclusive lighting
    Fancy design and high quality materials are used to make a lamp for exclusive lighting. Whether original, playful or demure, and elegant and extravagant design will complement your living space.


    Exhibition lighting
    A display light is matched to the visual stress of exhibits. The lighting can be run over or accentuated. The light screen plays a particularly significant role in the museum and gallery area lighting.



    Exposure H
    Unit: Lux seconds [lx s] - The product of illuminance and time is called the exposure H (at a time of unchanged illuminance). - H = E * t


    The eye is an optical system for the imaging of objects on the retina. In the interaction of the different components such as cornea (cornea), the anterior chamber, the iris (iris), the lens and the vitreous body, the eye can adjust to lighting conditions that vary by a factor of 105. The lower limit of sensitivity of the eye is about 10-12 lx (star in the night sky).

    Fairy lights
    The light chain (a series of light points) has a peak season during Christmas time. They are available in different designs. From the string of lights in candle form up to the LED chain of lights to the variety of sizes, shapes and colors. The string of lights is probably the most used Christmas lights. It adorns houses, gardens, doors and the Christmas tree. The string of lights allows for a flexible installation. A wide variety of patterns and figures can be formed for decorating windows. The warm glow of the light chain provides always a welcoming and cozy warmth. Although the selection of the appropriate light chain is mainly one of personal taste, it is important to distinguish between outdoor lights and indoor fairy lights. Fairy lights for outdoor use are better designed against the intake of moisture and external weather conditions. Light chains suitable for outdoor use are fabricated with a correspondingly high degree of protection (at least IP44). The light chain is now also available in the market as a wireless product with remote control. Such a wireless light is extremely practical for large Christmas trees. Decorating with fairy lights can be seen from now on as a completely relaxing task. Problems with distances between the individual light points and tangled cables belong to the past.


    Fiber optic lighting systems
    A bundle of fiber optic cables (fiberglass or plastic) transport and distribute light from a single centralized light source into fiber optic lighting systems. The thin, flexible lines can also be laid in hard to reach angles underground or underwater. At the exit point of each line light optics such as lenses determine the light direction and effect, or whether it will work with color light sources / color filters. A distinction is made between ends and side emitting glass fibers.


    Filament is another name for the tungsten filament of a light bulb. This filament of the bulb is used with electrical voltage to glow, thus producing light.


    Fire safety symbols
    The letters "F" or "M" in the upside-down triangle are fire protection symbols. They inform whether and how the self-heating of a lamp is limited, and on which inflammable materials they must be mounted. If lights carry fire protection symbols, the manufacturer's assembly instructions must be observed. The fire protection symbol "D" in the upside-down triangle (previously two "F" triangles) indicates luminaires with limited surface warming. They may be used in industry and handcrafts, and particularly in areas with combustible dusts.


    A flare is a decorative light for example in an outdoor setting. With a flare you can highlight features in your garden. The flare produces no light to get a better look, but rather creates an atmosphere. There is enough low wattage in order to orient yourselves in the darkness of the garden.


    Floor lamp
    Floor lamps (also standing lamps) are mobile luminaires. By means of screens, light directing materials or reflectors, light is produced in different directions according to the design.


    Floor light
    Floor lights are lights that are located near the ground and thus in a lower room level, e.g. near a TV set; bring out the anti-glare points.


    Floor lamp
    See standing lamp




    Florentine light
    Florentine light is the term used to describe artistically designed lighting with flowers and leaves. The old Florentine crafts created impressive role models for stylish lamps. Today's Florentine lights tend to mirror these models. Often they are forged by hand, finished with gold or silver plating or painted by hand. Traditional craftsmanship and artistic design make these pieces so valuable. Florentine lights are available as wall lamps, ceiling lamps, table lamps, floor lamps and pendant luminaires. The artfully arranged flowers and leaves around the bulb of a Florentine light throw a sexy shadow in space, and thus create interesting, vibrant lighting effects.


    Fluorescent lamp
    Fluorescent lamps are low-pressure gas discharge lamps, in which ultraviolet radiation (UV) generated in the discharge space, which is invisible to the human eye, is converowd by means of phosphors into visible radiation, and also light.


    Fluorescent tube
    See Fluorescent tube


    Fluorescent tubes
    Inside the fluorescent tube, there is a gas mixture which is rendered conductive by a high electrical voltage to the two opposing electrodes of the tube. This creates an electrical discharge. To ignite it you will need a starowr which brings the electrodes in the current flow to glow. The glass bulb of the fluorescent tube is covered on the inside with a phosphor. This phosphor is excited by the discharge voltage and also begins to shine. Therefore fluorescent lamps are also called fluorescent tubes. An advantage of fluorescent lighting is the very high efficiency (60%) rate and long life, among the disadvantages are to be included the large structural shape and the lack of ability to focus the light.


    Full spectrum lamp
    Full-spectrum lamps are rod-shaped three-band fluorescent lamps with a diameter of 26 mm or 16 mm. Their light corresponds to the spectral composition of light, which is why these bulbs are often called full-spectrum daylight fluorescent lamps. Thus, they also have a higher proportion of ultraviolet (UV) light than ordinary fluorescent lamps. In full-spectrum lamps that are designed for general lighting purposes, the UV component is reduced to protect against high radiation exposure. Because of the increased UV component in their light, full spectrum lamps are also used for medical and therapeutic purposes. They allow for the controlled application of UV radiation that is known to cause harm in excess (for example, "sunburn"). Light color and color rendering properties correspond in these characteristics to those of other De-luxe fluorescent lamps of light color-daylight white with identifier 965.

    Ganglion cell
    Nerve cells, which are responsible for the processing and transmission of nerve impulses from receptor cells. In connection with the biological effects of light, it is important that the retinal ganglion cells are particularly located in the retina. For a long time it was assumed that these ganglion cells were only responsible for the processing of information from the visual receptors - the rods and cones. They also generate ganglion cells from the mixture of signals from red-and green-sensitive cones to produce a signal for yellow, which is then passed on to the brain. This mixture allows in the first place the perception of all different colors. Approximately 2-3% of these ganglion cells are themselves sensitive to light in blue. These act as a "third photoreceptor".


    Garden lamp
    A garden lamp serves as the light source in the outdoor area and can be a stand-alone design element. They can illuminate useful light paths and areas or create decorative effects with accent lights and should fit harmoniously into the atmosphere. (See also outdoor lighting)


    Garden lighting
    We place great value on our garden lighting especially in the summertime. The garden will be the second living room and garden lighting creates the necessary atmosphere. Garden lights are lights that can be used outdoors and serve here for lighting paths, special plants, watering areas or groups of seats. Garden lights have to meet special requirements for installation and moisture protection. More information about garden lights is also available in the outdoor lighting section. At the same time garden lights are decorative elements that make the lovingly tended garden shine in the evenings with a new light. A true landscape can be skillfully designed with a romantic flair using garden lighting. Lighted shrubs and trees, maybe even an illuminated stream - all these elements give your garden that extra mile in the evenings. Garden lights are beautiful to look at not only at night time. Good, high-quality garden lights are a decorative eye candy during the day.


    Garden light with sensor
    Garden lights with sensors are outdoor lights with integrated motion detectors for lighting mainly for roadways and places or as security lighting. They are practical and energy-saving.


    Garden sockets
    Garden outlets with ground spike, cable and connectors are used for connection of lights and to power other electrical appliances or as permanently installed supply bollards.


    Gas discharge
    An arc discharge occurs when a voltage takes place in a sealed glass or ceramic volume which is filled with inert gas, metal vapor and rare earth. The resulting direct radiation of the gaseous filling substances produce the desired light color. For example, mercury vapor, metal halide and sodium vapor lamps.


    General lighting
    General lighting is a largely uniform lighting produced throughout the room. It allows the orientation and spatial typical uses. Accent lighting and - square lighting serve as a supplement. For ambient lighting purposes it contributes to illuminate the room so that all objects and people become recognizable.


    Gimbal spotlight
    Gimbal radiators are a good solution if flexible light is needed directly from the ceiling without the lamp to be dismounted. The gimbal (= floating) suspension allows - for example, in showrooms - for the spotlight to be aligned. Gimbal adjustable spotlights are not quite as flexible as track-mounted spotlights, which allow for a much smoother ceiling.


    GSG (low-loss ballasts): These have, in comparison to conventional ballasts, lower power dissipation, but have some larger dimensions, their production is also complex due to the improvement of the construction and use of improved alloys, iron and larger packages. The system performance for a 26 watt compact fluorescent lamp is, for example about 30 watts.


    GS test mark
    The GS mark ("Tested Safety") serves as a mean to certify compliance with the Equipment Safety Act. It must be used in conjunction with the sign of the auditee, such as VDE or Technical Inspection Association (TÜV).

    Half-night operation
    The half-night operation (half-night circuit) of street lighting is used in off-peak periods of energy saving. For luminaires that are equipped with a lamp, the lamp power of the individual point of light is reduced, for example, from 80 watts to 50 watts (power reduction). Turning off single-lamp lights leads to uneven hazardous passing due to non-uniformity of illumination. The turnoff for the half-night operation is only possible for two or more lights on a mast (a light is always on) or for two-lamp lights (a lamp is always on).


    Hallway light
    The lighting of corridors is often a very unique theme. The possibilities are very different according to taste and use of the hallway. If the corridor is used only as a passage, then ceiling mounted lights might easily suffice. Another option may be given to the use of lamps with sensors or detectors, because of their energy saving capabilities. Regarding the use of more narrow or low corridors the use of recessed lighting is an interesting choice. The ceiling height is not affected and it can create interesting effects. It serves the hallway rather than the reception room, and should be set to find high quality and visually appealing corridor lights. Just at the entrance they must create a welcoming atmosphere. Also you can combine here different light sources such as recessed lighting and wall lights.


    Halogen cycle
    The filling gas in the glass bulb of halogen lamps contains halogens, which form a connection with the tungsten evaporated from the hot filament. This gaseous compound reaches the thermal flow in the vicinity of the hot filament, where halogens and tungsten disconnect. The liberated tungsten is deposited on the filament. The halo then becomes available for the cycle again.


    Halogen lamp
    Halogen lamps are among the so-called temperature radiators. Halogen lamps are similar in structure and mode of operation to incandescent lamps. In addition, however, they contain small amounts of halogen filling gas (bromine, chlorine, fluorine, iodine), or their compounds. With the help of these supplements, it is possible (due to evaporating tungsten atoms) to stop the blackening of the bulb within a certain temperature range, and to virtually prevent the associated light power purchase. Therefore the piston sizes can be greatly reduced for halogen lamps, whereby a part of the fill gas pressure may be increased on the one hand, and on the other the economic use of the expensive noble gases krypton and xenon is possible as a filling gas. Halogen lamps are much more efficient than conventional incandescent bulbs.


    Hand lamp
    Hand lamps are mobile and flexible, and can be operated with battery or a long power cord. They also take care of poorly accessible places or in places where power supply is not installed (e.g. on construction sites) for the necessary light.


    Hanging lamps
    Hanging lights, also called pendant lamps are attached to the ceiling and hung over the power cord or additional steel cables. They can be flexibly adjusted by various mechanisms in height. In the private sector they are mostly used as light sources above the dining table, in the office or workplace light or in very high rooms as basic illumination.


    Haunches are channel-shaped stucco formations in or on ceilings or walls, in which fluorescent lamps or LED strips can be used for indirect lighting.


    Haunch lamp
    Haunch lamps are installed in the curved transition between wall and ceiling - the haunch -. Their diffused light brightens the ceiling edges of a room as indirect lighting. There are also haunch luminaires whose lamp body forms the haunch itself. Typically, they are equipped with linear fluorescent lamps or LED strips.


    Headlights are designed for high performance lamps (in watts). Lamps with lower rating are used in spotlights or small headlights. In outdoor lighting, headlights are for illuminating purposes. In interiors the spotlight finds its most common use in theater and performance stages.


    High-voltage halogen lamp
    Halogen lamps are the improved version of bulbs. Instead of a vacuum a halogen gas mixture is located in the pistons. As a result, metal atoms detaching from the filament, are not fixed on glass, but rather overlap again at the wire. Thus, the wire will last longer and the life of halogen lamps is increased compared to incandescent lamps by 2 - to 3-fold, at the same time, the glass bulb does retain a black coloring.

    High-voltage halogen lamps are operated directly with mains voltage 230V. They are available, among others, with E27 and E14 standard sockets, so they can easily replace the bulb and thereby have a more brilliant lighting effect.


    HMI lamps
    HMI lamps refer to metal halide lamps with increased wall stress and very short electrode distances reaching even higher luminous efficiency and better color reproduction, but are associated with loss of life. These lamps are particularly suitable for applications such as lighting for dramatic effect, endoscopy, film and television recording under daylight conditions (color temperature = 6000 K). The power of these lamps ranges from 200 W to 18 kW.


    HTI short arc lamp
    Short arc halide lamps which have the shorowst electrode gaps have been developed for optical applications. They are characterized by their high luminous efficacy and very high luminance, and are therefore mainly used for lighting effects, as position light sources, and in the medical field for conducting endoscopy studies.

    It is defined in units in lux (lx) as the ratio of the illuminance light flux falling on a surface to the size of its area.


    Illuminance E
    Illuminance (E) is a measure of the incident light on horizontal and vertical surfaces. Unit Lux (lm). The average illuminance of a surface is the luminous flux (lm) per unit area. The illuminance E is thus the ratio of the luminous flux and the illuminated surface. The illuminance of 1 lx occurs when the luminous flux lm 1 strikes evenly on an area of 1 m2.


    Images / mirror light
    Picture lights are wall lights specifically designed for image lighting.

    They are mounted above or beside the image. They have exactly the right distance from the screen, place art on the scene, and atmospherically accents the room. In mirror lights (make-up, hair styling) the choice of wardrobe needs one glare-free light so that the complexion and the colors in the mirror appear realistic.


    Incandescent lamp / bulb
    Incandescent lamps are electric lights, (incandescent light bulb or incandescent lamp) whose radiation is generated from tungsten by a highly heated filament (2600-3000 Kelvin).

    The tungsten is located in a closed, gas-filled, and in some types also evacuated glass bulb. However, the bulb converts a large part of the consumed energy (approx. 96%) into heat. Thus, incandescent lamps are a type of temperature radiators. This poor energy efficiency is also the reason for the prohibition of different versions of incandescent lamps since September of 2009.


    Indirect lighting
    Indirect lighting refers to a situation in which light from lamps only shines on the ceiling or walls and is then reflected by these surfaces back into the room. The light is shielded from the viewer, anti-glare protects the light emission above eye level or on the side facing away from the viewer. It is only the effect of light, since the light source is not perceived. Indirect lighting is considered to be very pleasant and can make rooms appear higher and more generous.


    Infrared guard
    Passive infrared motion detectors register thermal radiation of humans and turn on - individually programmed lights - from a few seconds to several minutes. Most devices can be controlled with a built-in dimmer switch so that they react only during hours of darkness. Lights associated with passive infrared motion detectors should always be operated with incandescent lamps, halogen lamps or LEDs. They get on full power mode when turned on, and are insensitive to frequent switching.


    Infrared radiation
    Infrared radiation (IR radiation when abbreviated, also known as ultra-red radiation) is referred to in physics as electromagnetic waves in the spectral region between visible light and the longer wavelength of the terahertz radiation. IR is a side of the long wavelength light lying invisible heat radiation, but one which is generated by all light sources, especially incandescent lamps. To avoid annoying IR radiation that can make paper become brittle under prolonged exposure, cold light reflector lamps are used, which are available in a wide range of services with different beam angles. The coating of the cold-light reflector can carry up to 75% of IR radiation to the back of the reflector, so that the front "cold" light is emitted. Using other lamps in spotlights allow for IR filters to be pre-set.


    The power consumption (including lamp wattage or wattage) describes the power consumed by a lamp or ballast in watts (W). In low-pressure and high-pressure discharge lamps, the addition of lamp performance and power consumption of the ballast results in system performance.


    Physical appearance in the superposition of phase-shifted waves of the same frequency can lead to the selective attenuation of wave fields. Interference is used in interference filters. These are filters that transmit only a very narrow wavelength range (10 nm .20). In addition, interference is used in reflectors for selective transmission, for example, at DECO STAR lamps with dichroic reflector.


    Interior light
    Indoor lighting denote lights, which are to be used only indoors on the basis of their material and / or protection. They are a means of design and should be current with care. Interior lighting must be able to meet the most diverse lighting requirements and adapt their style to the particular space and its architecture.


    Interior lighting
    The interior lighting provides both the required brightness and the desired mood. Firstly, they play a very significant part in the atmosphere of a room. Their light is the decor of a room in scene, making it a design element. Secondly, the lights themselves are more or less prominent sculptures that can greatly affect the impression of a room even during the day operating in the off mode.


    IP protection
    The protection is the suitability of electrical equipment (such as lamps) for different environmental conditions, in addition to protecting people against potential dangers associated with their use. The first number in the case of lamps indicates protection against foreign bodies and contact; the second number indicates protection against water.


    IRC technology
    IRC stands for Infra-Red Coating. IRC technology reduces energy consumption by up to 30 percent without changing the luminous flux of a lamp. In this technique, the lamp vessel is equipped with a special infrared coating. This coating reflects heat radiation emitted from the filament in the lamp, for the most part back to the filament.


    Irradiance (symbol E dm) is the term for the total power of the incoming electromagnetic energy impinging on a surface - in relation to the size of the area. It is usually measured in watts per square meter.

    The kelvin (unit symbol: K) is the SI unit base of thermodynamic temperature and at the same time legal unit of temperature; It is also used to indicate temperature differences. (See color temperature)


    Kitchen lamp
    Kitchen lights are special lights (ceiling lights, furniture design / furniture lighting) for the kitchen area or on the countertop. Since the kitchen is used as a workplace, it is important that the new kitchen lamp fits for setup and provides the necessary brightness.


    Kitchen light
    The kitchen is a workplace, and it is secondly the most frequented space in an apartment. For the workplace a functional light is needed, which allows the safe handling of knives, liquids, etc. For example, the sink area is the zone that is supposed to have the best light. Here the quality of the food is checked, dishes washed, fish eviscerated, etc!


    Kitchen lighting
    Since industrialization of artificial light, it is possible for architecture and their spatial effect to influence much further across, it can create the most diverse ambiance in the same room regardless of the time of the day and year, and it is possible to show and stage a room in many different ways.


    KVG (conventional ballast): This is a simple inductive resistor which consists of a copper wire wrapped iron core. Due to this ohmic resistance it causes severe performance degradation and high heat generation. KVGs are no longer used today.

    Without lamp, there is no light: "lamp" means the technical execution of an artificial light source. The lamp converts electrical energy into light. The lamp is used in the luminaire, which distributes the light from the lamp, and directs it and protects against glare. Lamps are available in many designs. They differ by the type of light production, their geometric forms and their photometric properties. In the lounge for example, halogen lamps, energy saving lamps and fluorescent lamps are used.


    Lamp base
    Lamp bases are installed in luminaires and serve to hold and fix the lamp. A distinction can be made between screw base, (the normal lamp base), pin base, terminal socket and cable base.


    Lamp design
    Light has always inspired and intrigued creative people. No wonder why then many designers have fallen for lamp design. Lamp design is always a new challenge for lamp designers, as function and design must complement each other perfectly. Lamp design is therefore a high art.


    Lamp lumen maintenance factor (LLMF)
    The maintenance factor for lamps is a calculated value for the maintenance plan of a lighting system that takes into account the decrease of the luminous flux as a result of the aging of the lamp.


    Lamp post
    With a lantern set up a striking point of light in your garden, in the courtyard or on the terrace.


    Lamp survival factor
    The lamp survival factor is a calculated value for the maintenance plan of a lighting system that takes into account the deviation of the life of individual lamps from the average life of lamps, or early failures in fixed maintenance rhythms.



    Lava lamp
    Lava lamp has remained nowadays a popular lighting, e.g. furnishings. The footer of the lamp has a light bulb installed. It ensures that the wax contained in the upper part of the lamp is in liquid form. After about 30 minutes of warm-up time the fascinating bubble game begins inside the lava lamp.


    LBS is the abbreviation for a uniform system for the designation of electric lamps. The abbreviation of a lamp identifies among other things the way they produce light, the piston material, gas fillings, the performance and the version.


    LEDs or light emitting diodes - the acronym stands for Light Emitting Diodes - they are electronic semiconductor devices that emit light under tension in colors such as red, green, yellow or blue. With the help of an additional internal light layer blue glowing LEDs can also produce white light. The advantages of LEDs are long life, maintenance-free, UV / IR-freedom of light, low energy consumption, color stability and shock resistance. LEDs are available in different designs. LEDs were first used mainly for orientation lights. More and more often they produce color dynamic light on the principle of RGB color mixing in both exterior and interior lighting. Meanwhile many desk lamps and also the first set of street lights are powered with LEDs. So it will not be long before semiconductor conquer the general lighting application with their white light. LEDs are operated at low voltage. Usually several diodes form a module. For LED light in conventional lamps offers the lamp industry RGB LED modules, which are housed in a light source with a light bulb shape and an E27 screw base. They produce in a "normal" living room lamp either white light for general and space lighting, as well as colored mood lighting in red, green and blue, or as a changing color.


    LED Downlight
    LED downlights are installed on ceilings, for discreet illumination or flashy light points. They spread a discreet, uniform light mood or conjure up a starry sky on the ceiling.





    LED floor lamp
    LED floor lamps are ideal for installation in stairways and paths. LED floor lamps are ideal for installation in stairways. They consume little power, are virtually maintenance free and last up to 100,000 hours, they produce a light that can be color-matched against the requirements.


    LED light
    LED lights are energy efficient and maintenance free. LED lights are ideal for ceilings, walls, paths and cabinets.


    LED light bar
    LED light bars are versatile and are ideal light source for kitchens, work areas and corridors. Through its multiple element design, they provide a uniform illumination of elongated faces and spaces. LED light bars can also be used as a central ceiling light or as decorative light sculpture on the wall. LED light bars can also be fitted with colored LEDs for unusual lighting effects.


    LED reading light
    For our eyes reading is one of the most strenuous tasks, so good lighting is essential. In order not to strain your eyes, use an LED reading lamp, which provides the brightness that you need. The reading light must be individually aligned because the photosensitivity of people is very different. Since LED reading lights are available in numerous designs, you can adjust the lamp to your viewing requirements. For example, warm white light, neutral white or daylight white light. LED reading lights are also dimmable, and can be adjusted in brightness.


    There are different types of lenses but they are all an optical element for directing light. The optical behavior of a lens is determined by the radius of curvature of the shape and structure of each lens. In projection lamps lens systems are used for the precise mapping of gobos. The flat Fresnel lenses can be used as an accessory in spotlight for spreading the light symmetrically or asymmetrically.


    Lens systems
    Lens systems make use of the reflection and refraction laws. Through their application they can selectively influence the direction of light and generate a so-called optical imaging.


    Lens wall washers
    A lens wall washer is a lamp with an asymmetrical light distribution for uniform wall illumination. The light is spread by a corresponding lens.


    Life Lite full-spectrum daylight lamps
    Life Lite are high-quality full-spectrum daylight lamps. They cover the entire color spectrum of daylight and have a high color rendering and color temperature. Daylight can be imitated with all its properties with Life Lite lamps and lighting. The energy-saving lamps are of great advantage especially in the dark winter months. Daylight improves concentration, motivation, performance, and affects both circulation and blood pressure.


    The service life of a light source is determined e.g. for light bulbs after the failure of 50% of the lamps, the lifetime for discharge lamps and LEDs is calculated by the reduction up to 50% of fixed light output.


    Light is defined as the visible radiation perceptible by the human eye. This is a small part of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum, comprising in addition to the visible light, also gamma, X-rays, infrared radiation and ultraviolet radiation, and radio waves. The spectral range of light ranges from 380 to 780 nanometers wavelength. Within this range, the spectrum splits into the different colors from violet to blue, green, and yellow to red. Outside this range the human eye can "see" no radiation. Some other areas of the electromagnetic spectrum, although not visible to the eye, are still perceived: IR radiation warms, UV-A radiation tans.


    The word illumination actually means in its simplest form only to brighten a room. This definition, by far however, does not give justice to all parts of the concept. Lighting is much more than just brightness: lighting is part of the arrangement, determines the room ambience and is perceived by most people as pleasant.


    Light and dark adaptation
    Light and dark adaptation of verowbrate animals are bound to the retina motor skills (movement of pigment epithelial cells extension and the outer segments of the photoreceptors). Light adaptation is the special case of daylight when the entire visual system has adapted to luminance levels above 3.4 cd/m2. Dark adaptation is the special case when the visual system has adapted to luminance levels at 0,034 cd/m2. A very obvious example of (quantitative) adaptation can be observed when a person moves out into the full sun inside a building. The visual environment in the building will first appear almost black. After a few minutes, the person is then able to recognize details (such as newspaper text to read). However, the view from the window is again uncomfortable, since the large luminances out now cause a lot of glare.


    Light bar
    The light bar is everywhere the right light, where only one power supply is available, but you need several light sources. With a light bar wonderful accents can be set, or different corners of a room can be illuminated without having to install the same number of individual emitters. Aside from that, a light bar is always an attractive decorative object that even during the day does not lose its creative effect. In terms of light color a light bar has a large bandwidth. Whether you prefer warm light or rather bright, cold spots, for example, for the color-neutral illumination of wall paintings, light bar offers plenty of variations.


    Light bulb
    The bulb is the classic amongst light sources. With it, the triumph of the electric light began. Today's bulb is compared to the original by Thomas Alva Edison, of course, a high tech product. With so many color, shape and light variations, it has even made a solo career. Normally light bulbs are used in combination with a noble light for achieving the desired look inside and out. Through the adopted ban on incandescent lamps, alternative light sources, such as energy saving lamps, halogen lamps or LED lamps are being increasingly used.


    Light color
    Light color is the natural color of light emitted from a lamp. It is characterized by the color temperature, unit Kelvin (K). Light colors are defined according to DIN 5035: Warm white light (below 3300 K), neutral white light (3300-5000 K), daylight white light (about 5000 K). The light color of lamps does not allow for a conclusion to be made about the color rendering properties. Most lamps are used with warm white light for lighting in the living area.




    Light cone
    A light cone is a cone of light, which is generally produced by a rotation-symmetrical reflector. The optical system of a luminaire determines whether the gradient of the light cone edge is hard or soft. For radiators the light cone can be flexibly changed by tilting or rotating.


    Light cone diameter
    Denotes the diameter of a light cone. The beam diameter results from the beam angle and the distance from the luminaire.


    Light-cone section (cut)
    The light cone section is a hyperbolic cut of a cone of light such as on a wall by downlights.


    Light conductor
    Light conductors are optical instruments that for example lead to any light through curved guide ways. The light is transporowd by total internal reflection in cylindrical solid or hollow fibers made of transparent material (glass or plastic fibers, tubes, rods).


    Light control
    Reflectors or lenses are used for light control. The light steering has a crucial importance for visual comfort. Due to the light steering, the glare of lights can be reduced to an acceptable level.


    Light direction
    Light direction is observed under daylight coming through the window. The furniture, such as desks are set up accordingly. Light that comes laterally from the top is considered as pleasant and proper. Artificial lighting should come from the same direction, so that the - shadiness is not reversed and the reflected glare in the evening does not occur. - Glare


    Light distribution curve - LVK
    The light distribution curve, LVK, is calculated as the average of the light intensity distribution body that represents the luminous intensity of a light source for all solid angles. At rotationally symmetric light sources, the light intensity distribution can be characterized by a single light intensity distribution curve, in axisymmetric light sources two or more curves are required. The light intensity distribution curve is usually given in the form of a polar coordinate diagram. For headlamps, the display is in Carowsian coordinates.


    Light-emitting surfaces
    Light-emitting surfaces refer to the plane of a lamp that emerges out of the light. Depending on the lighting technology a light has one or more of these levels. The luminance of the light emitting surfaces is used for the glare evaluation of a luminaire.


    Light flux
    Luminous flux unit lumen (lm) is the total light output of a lamp. It is influenced by the nature of light generation and the electric power (W).


    Light generation

    In principle, three different types of light production can be distinguished: thermal radiators, low and high pressure discharge.


    Light intensity I
    Unit: candela [cd]. - A light source emits its luminous flux F generally in different directions to different degrees. The intensity of the emitted light in a certain direction is referred to as a light intensity I.


    Light intensity distribution
    The light intensity is dependent upon direction. It is represented in polar or Carowsian charts, which are called light distribution curves (LVKs). The most homogeneous light distribution curve is obtained from a flat, diffuse radiating surface. As the light intensity behaves in directions which are inclined by the angle g to the normal surface, I cos g, the light distribution curve must be a circle. Such a radiating surface is called Lambertian.


    Light output
    The term light output is another term for the luminous flux. It corresponds to the radiation physics of the radiation power.




    Light pollution
    Light pollution refers to the light emission that is caused by illumination, light direction or spectrum in a given context which creates disorders. Outside, the light pollution leads to a brightening of the night sky. The avoidance of light pollution is referred to in lighting design as Dark Sky.


    Light quantity Q
    Light quantity Q is defined as the quotient of the emitted light power of a light source and the time factor. The amount of light plays such a role in the evaluation of light generation by flash lamps. Unit: kilo lumen per hour [klm / h].


    Light resistance
    The light resistance indicates the degree to which a material is altered by light (Light fastness). The light resistance primarily affects the change of color and also the change of the material itself.


    Light scene
    Lighting scenes are different lighting situations or cues with a specific set of brightness and color states. Using a lighting control allows for lighting scenes to be saved and recalled automatically or by pressing a button. For example, a scene called "wellness" is produced in the bathroom by using dimmed lights, indirect lighting, etc.


    Light sources
    Long gone are the days when there were light bulbs. The large collective term bulb describes different light sources such as halogen lamps for a particularly intense light output, LED lights for long-lasting lighting and energy-saving lamps for economical continuous lighting, metal halide lamps and of course the classic fluorescent tubes. And these are only the best known and most frequently used bulbs. Not exactly clear is the family of lamps with different base types of the luminaires. Depending on the light you need bulbs with screw bases, with pegs or bayonet base or with pins.


    Light structure
    A light structure is created by connecting individual lights to a predominantly linear structure, which is usually suspended from the ceiling.


    Light therapy
    The selective use of light - light therapy - may contribute to well-being and health. This makes it possible to counteract adverse effects of living environment, or personal development. Light helps, for example, in sleep disorders (such as shift work, jet lag), which may have even been caused by a shift of the "internal clock" (circadian rhythm). Light therapy also helps with lack of power, particularly among addicts suffering from seasonal depression (SAD), which occurs in the dark season and the cause is due to deficiency in natural daylight.


    Light yield
    Light yield is the light output of a lamp per watt of electrical power, unit lm / W.


    Lighting control system
    A lighting control system allows you to customize the lighting in a room to different user and computing conditions. The desired usage situation corresponds to a light scene, i.e. a certain pattern of switching and dimming status for individual circuits. A scene is stored electronically in the system and can be accessed by pressing a button.


    Lighting design
    When you go, for example, to refurnish your home, you should also take into account the lighting design. Light has a very significant influence on the atmosphere of your apartment, your home or your garden. A conscientious lighting design is therefore not a luxury but a necessity. Since it is becoming increasingly difficult for light to go through, for example, the elimination of incandescent lamps, the advent of LED technology, shell relevant lights, dynamic colored lighting or BUS systems, the lighting designer is more than ever necessary in the future. With a conscientious and intelligent lighting design you avoid nasty surprises and bad investments, because lights are not always cheap, especially if you have a slightly unusual flavor. Take the lighting design seriously and consider in advance exactly which light you would like to have inside and outside, and it will spare any disappointments.


    Lighting level
    Lighting level is essentially determined by the illumination emanating from a lamp. It is influenced by the reflection properties of the ceiling and the walls of the furniture and the floor. In strenuous visual tasks (reading, writing, and computer work) a high level of lighting must be guaranteed.


    Lighting outside
    Having the right outdoor lighting can set the tone. For example, illuminate your trees, hedges, paths and access routes or your house can dive into a burglar-related hostile light.


    Lighting system / e
    Lighting systems are useful and decorative. Useful since they are conveniently located where plenty of light is needed, but only one connection is available, for example on a kitchen or bar counter. Decorative, where one focuses not only on brightness, but would also like to provide atmospheric, perhaps even color accents in the room with differently oriented single luminaires. Even when switched off the light body of the lighting systems can be deliberately included in the design of spaces. There are numerous possibilities for the use of lighting systems. There are different lighting systems, such as low-voltage rail systems, cable systems, and 3-phase track systems.


    Lights marking
    Lights have a photometric identification, which provides a testimony of the light intensity distribution curve and efficiency, as well as the lamp type and maximum lamp power mark. The safety labeling is done for protection class and safety provision.


    Light with motion detector
    Lights with motion detectors are usually used at the entrance, the front door, in dark corners or in the stairwell.


    Living room lamp
    Living room lamps have interior lights that illuminate a living room. There are different types used, for example, luminaires for general lighting, spotlights, table lamps, ceiling luminaires, floor lamps, etc. It is important to focus on the personal sensations. Ambiance is obtained, for example, when lights of different levels shine in different intensities.




    Living room lighting
    A living room is a multifunctional space. Here one receives guests, watches TV, reads, works or sits off a cozy evening with a glass of wine. For all of these purposes, you need different lights all together. Living room lighting should therefore, for example, be dimmed, separately switchable, etc.


    Louvered luminaire

    Lighting with louver cover, especially tubular fluorescent lamps or compact fluorescent lamps are referred to as grid lights. Grid allows for light steering, light intensity distribution and also protect against glare.


    Low-radiation energy-saving lamp
    Due to the light bulb ban the classic light bulb is disappearing from the market in four steps. An alternative to light bulbs is the energy-saving lamp. Now the voices are getting louder against the energy saving lamp. A discussion of whether saving lamps in the household pose a threat to electrosmog has begun. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection, however, gives the all clear at the moment. The optical radiation and the magnetic and electric fields emitted by energy-saving lamps do not exceed the internationally recommended limits. The energy saving lamps can therefore be used as lighting in the household.


    Low-voltage lights
    Low-voltage lights operate at about 12 volts. They always need a transformer or similar gear.


    The luminous flux ? [lm] represents the total radiation power emitted by a light source in the room, which is evaluated with the IV spectral sensitivity of the eye; see luminous flux.


    Luminaire efficiency
    The luminaire efficiency is an important criterion for economic classification of a lamp. It provides the ratio of the light emitted by the light current to the luminous flux of the lamps used in the lamp again. The luminaire efficiency is to be distinguished from the illumination efficiency, which is composed of the product of the space efficiency and the light output ratio.



    Luminaire maintenance factor
    The luminaire maintenance factor is a calculated value for the maintenance plan for a lighting system that takes into account the decrease of the luminous flux of a lamp, as a result of pollution and the design of the lamp.


    Luminance L
    Luminance (L) is a measure of the brightness of a luminous or illuminated surface as perceived by the eye (cd/m2 unit). Luminance - brightness based on the popular area. - Unit: candela per square meter [cd/m2]


    The international handbook of lighting technology defines a luminary as a "device that is used for the distribution, filtering or transformation of light from lamps, including those necessary for securing, protecting and, providing energy supply for the lamp components." The light is the housing, which surrounds the lamp.


    Luminescence processes
    The initially unused and invisible UV radiation is converowd with phosphors and mercury gas discharges used for the generation of light into visible light. For example, fluorescent lamps, compact fluorescent lamps. In Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) upon application of a voltage (forward voltage) light is emitted in a relatively narrow band spectrum in a reversal of the principle of the diode. The emitted wavelength of the light is determined by the technology used (substrate structure) or doping of the semiconductor material.


    Luminous flux
    The luminous flux is measured in lumen (lm). The luminous flux describes the total light power emitted from a light source. It is calculated from the spectral radiant power through the assessment with the spectral sensitivity of the eye.


    Lustre is an obsolete term meaning Chandelier.




    Illuminance E is the ratio of the luminous flux and the illuminated surface. The illuminance of 1 lx occurs when the luminous flux of lm 1 strikes evenly on an area of 1 m2. (See illuminance E)


    LV halogen lamp
    Halogen lamps are available both as high-voltage halogen lamps, and as low-voltage halogen lamps. Low-voltage halogen lamps function with an operating voltage of 12V and can be operated together with a transformer.

    Low-voltage halogen lamps are often used for the illumination of offices, hotels or conference rooms.

    Magnifying lamp
    Magnifying lamps are magnifiers with their own lighting. Magnifying lamps facilitate working on small parts and support the eye at work. Magnifier lamps can be operated with a compact fluorescent lamp as these are available in various color temperatures and also as a daylight lamp.


    Magnifying luminaire
    Filigree workers know how to appreciate magnifying luminaires. Magnifying luminaires which are provided with an articulated arm and clamped to the work table are extremely practical. So you can work with both hands.


    Makeup mirror
    A make-up mirror magnifies its mirroring capabilities with its concave curvature. An integrated lighting will be provided for optimal lighting conditions.


    Maintenance factor
    The maintenance factor (WF) is based on the maintenance plan of a lighting system. It depends on the operating conditions and the type of lamps, ballasts and luminaires used. Planner (and operators) must document and define the maintenance factor. The replacement value is calculated as follows: new value = value maintenance / maintenance factor.


    Maintenance value
    All information such as the level of illuminance referred to in the European lighting standards such as DIN EN 12464-1 are maintenance values. That is, these values may be exceeded at any time. First, it is therefore necessary to install a higher replacement value (initial value); because if at the beginning only the maintenance value is realized, the new lighting system should be serviced immediately. The replacement value is determined by the maintenance factor.


    Mast lamp
    Mast lamps are lights, where several illuminant sit or hang on a pole. Predominantly found in the garden, on squares and paths and in courtyards and terraces.


    Mat surfaces
    Mat surfaces are an important prerequisite for avoiding reflected glare.


    Maximum loading
    Maximum loading, a prescribed notice on the name plate of lights; "A max 100 W" means: The luminaire must be equipped at most with a 100W incandescent lamp. In this assembly the manufacturer ensures the proper function, because it corresponds to the "intended use". It is primarily concerned with the influence of thermal radiation on version, insulation and other components of the luminaire. Note: Not only the max performance, but also the type of lamp, so incandescents are addressed here. For luminaires without any control gear can always be used as lower wattages, with operating devices and minimum load characteristics that must be observed.


    Photo pigment, which is responsible for the light sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells. Melanopsin connects the nerve signals through light absorption, which lead to the suppression of melatonin. Opsin is the general term for a light-sensitive dye (photo pigment) in the eye.



    Melatonin (suppression)
    Melatonin is the main hormone of the pineal gland and can be used as the body's signal for the nocturnal dark phase. It exerts a stimulating sleep in humans, activating in nocturnal animals. Melatonin is continuously produced and stored from serotonin in the pineal gland, and only released in the darkness. Light causes suppression of melatonin. If no melatonin is released, the melatonin levels in the bloodstream are reduced by degradation processes. Since melatonin is the most important measurable outward marker for circadian phase of the internal clock, the melatonin-suppressing effect is generally equated with the circadian effect, i.e. the biological effect of light on the internal clock.


    Mercury vapor lamp
    The mercury lamp is a gas discharge lamp. It is filled with mercury vapor and also includes shares of noble gases, usually argon to facilitate ignition. Between the two electrodes inside the piston, an electric discharge of mercury vapor takes place. It is characterized by a high light output with low power consumption. Their light source is bluish white.


    Mesopic vision
    Twilight vision; It is the transition state from daylight vision to night vision. The mesopic vision comprises the luminance range of 3CD / m2 to 0.01 cd / m2. The color perception and visual acuity take corresponding intermediate values.


    Metal halide lamp
    Metal halide lamps are high pressure lamps with additions of metal iodides or iodides from the rare earths like dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho) and thulium (Tm) and complex compounds with cesium (Cs) and tin halides (Sn). They decompose in the core of the discharge arc and the metals can be excited to emit light, whose intensity and spectral distribution depend upon the vapor pressure of the metal halides. The light output and color production properties of metal halide lamps are excellent making them ideal for professional use, e.g. in shop/commercial lighting.


    Mirror lighting
    Mirror lighting is often used in bathrooms or cloakrooms. This has nevertheless to be bright enough and glare-free, which is achieved by indirect lighting or backlit satin surfaces.


    Mixed light lamp
    Blended lamps are mercury vapor high-pressure lamps in which the filament in the tubing of the lamp is connected in series to limit the current and to improve the color reproduction. The color reproduction lies within the 2B range, and has a value of about 62 which is thus slightly better than that of pure mercury arc lamps. However, the light yield in the mixed light lamp for the 250W version is only about 22 lm / W, which is significantly below that of a mercury vapor high-pressure lamp with comparable performance. In both types of lamps, the color temperature is equal to approximately 4000 K. However, compared to the incandescent lamp, the color rendering is substantially worse, but the light yield is 50% higher in the mixed light lamp as compared to an incandescent lamp.


    Luminaires with a minimum protection IP X4 are damp-proof luminaires. They are used mainly in industry and trade, and are the right choice in garages and basements. The higher the degree of protection of the moisture-proof, the better it is protected against the intake of moisture and dirt.


    Monochromatic light
    It refers to a one-single color light with a very narrow spectral range. Through the cessation of the chromatic aberration, the visual acuity increases under monochromatic light. However, it is impossible to reproduce colors.


    Motion detector
    Motion sensors or presence detectors automatically turn on the connected lighting as objects or bodies move in their detection range. They work in different technical configurations: passive infrared (PIR), radar or ultrasonic sensors. The duty cycle is controlled by a timer and may be varied. Motion detectors can be both outdoors - for example, in gardens or parking areas - and interiors - installed for example, in the hallway or in offices. Outside, they also serve to protect against criminal activity, indoors they effectively help to save energy. To prevent any outdoor lighting switching operations during daylight, the combination recommends using a light sensor.





    Murano glass
    Murano glass is made on the Murano islands Venice. This glass is ornately crafted, and very valuable. Murano glass is used for the production of lighting, especially chandeliers and crystal chandeliers.

    Narrow beam
    Used to emphasize certain areas, narrow-beam illumination is used for accent lighting detail.


    Neutral white
    Light color of 5,300 Kelvin to 3,300 Kelvin is called "neutral white".


    Night vision
    It is the adaptation to luminance of less than 0.01 cd / m2. The visual acuity is low and no colors are perceived. However, the sensitivity for motion is high.


    Nominal illuminance
    This term was formerly used in the national lighting standards. It was defined as the average illuminance in the furnished room with respect to a mean age of the plant. For the replacement value (initial value) the nominal illumination was multiplied by the planning factor of 1.25. Today, the decrease in light intensity due to aging and contamination of lamps, lighting and the walls and ceiling will be considered in the room along with the maintenance factor. The values given in DIN EN standards illuminance values are maintenance values.


    Nursery lights
    Lamps for children should be robust. Hazardous components such as current leads and hot lamps must be securely covered. In infants, nursery lights should be saliva-proof.

    Office lamp
    An office lamp must fit as a working medium much like a desk or a PC. It serves its practical and ergonomic purpose if the office light is aligned to the task and individual needs.


    Office light
    Office lights are basically all lights that are used in the office. So, for example, desk lamps, torchiere, hanging lights, pendant lamps, etc.

    Apart from personal taste and decorating style, various standards must be observed in the selection of office/workplace lights.


    Office lighting
    The office lighting is based on the requirements for computer workstations and workplace regulations. A distinction is made between general lighting, workplace-oriented general lighting and individual task lighting.


    Office lighting equipment
    The term office lighting summarizes all the lights that are used in the office area. These include workplace lights, pendant lights for meeting rooms, ceiling lights (louvered), spots and also headlights.


    OLEDs are organic light emitting diodes. OLEDs are mainly used in displays and screens. The mass production as a lighting object is still waiting. With the OLED consisting of extremely thin luminous organic semiconductors, came the first area light source on the market.


    Opal glass
    Opal glass is a colored and slightly turbid glass. This cloudiness can be achieved in various ways, on the one way they are caused by micro-glassy phases, or by tiny crystals or fine glass bubbles. Opal glass has unique lighting properties that makes it an interesting glass for lighting fixtures. With opal glass, a bright and warm glare-free light can be achieved at the same time. Lamps with opal glass shades create in this way a pleasant and cozy atmosphere.



    Opaque glass
    Opaque glass is a light-proof glass. It is heavily clouded or even tinted. The surface of the opaque glass is smooth and slightly glossy. Often, the back of the opaque glasses is grooved.


    Operating devices
    Operating units mainly use current limiting ballasts and start igniters for the operation of discharge lamps, and for the operation of transformers for low-voltage halogen lamps. Operating devices are required for the operation of light sources.


    Operating voltage
    The operating voltage of a lamp indicates how high the voltage can be to fully operate the lamps. Most lamps have an operating voltage of 230 volts AC (230 ~), the standard mains voltage. In low-voltage lights the mains voltage is for example reduced by a transformer from 110V or 230V at 12 or 24 volts.


    Optical radiation
    Optical radiation includes short-wave ultraviolet (UV) radiation (100-380 nm = nanometers), visible light with 380 to 780 nm wavelength and long wavelength infrared (IR) radiation (780 nm to 1 mm).


    Orientation / information lights
    Orientation lights spend (relatively little) light, which is also intended for guidance purposes only.

    Usually, glare-free wall or floor luminaires that are mounted close to the door and equipped e.g. with compact 5W fluorescent lamps.


    Outdoor lighting
    Outdoor lighting refers to the lighting of outdoor areas, such as the garden, the courtyard or outdoor paths and doors. For outdoor lighting other lamps are used as opposed to the interior lighting.

    Lights for outdoor usage have to withstand weather conditions, as well as severe temperature fluctuations. Outdoor lights should have at least the IP 43 degree of protection. If the exterior lighting is completely unprotected then higher degrees of protection from IP55 will be necessary.



    Outdoor lights
    Outdoor lights are particularly weather-resistant lights for outdoor use. An outside light should be spray or splash-proof depending on the location. Whether a light is suitable for the outdoor area, can be detected on the protection, among other factors. Outdoor lights have at least IP 43 protection. Outdoor lighting can basically be divided into functional and decorative outdoor lighting, with functional outdoor lighting naturally taking over on a more decorative role.


    Outlet pillars
    Outlet pillars are used for the lighting of gardens and parks. With a lead and several outlets they allow for the central supply of several portable lights. Of course, these can also be connected to the electric lawn mower.

    PAR lamps
    PAR lamps (Parabolic Aluminized Reflector) are pressed glass reflector lamps, which are available in three versions: incandescents, as high-voltage halogen lamps, each with a screw E 27 base, and as metal halide lamps with ceramic burners. They are available with different beam angles and are mainly used for illumination outdoors.


    The parabolic reflector directs the light from a light source to a focal point in parallel.


    Path lighting
    It is used to illuminate paths and outdoor seating, and creates security and atmosphere. Possible options are, for example, recessed floor lights, bollard lights, pole lights, candelabra, and garden lanterns.


    Pendant light
    Ceiling lights can be used as recessed lighting or as mounted lights on the ceiling, but they can also be suspended from the ceiling. "Pendant lights" are mostly for residential lighting, such as for the table; in offices, however, it is usually talked about "suspended lights".


    Pendant luminaire
    Pendant luminaires are practical and very decorative. The respective suspension height of the lamp can, for example, be varied by counterweights.


    Phase control
    It is a method for brightness control, wherein the power consumption of the lamps is controlled by means of the first cut of AC waves.


    A device for the measurement of photometric quantities.


    Photopic vision
    Daylight vision through an adaptation to a luminance of about 3cd / 3. The visual acuity is high and colors can be perceived.


    Light-sensitive sensory cells that convert light quanta (photons) impinging on them into electrical signals of the nervous system. The photoreceptors in the retina of the human eye are called cones, rods and melanopsin ganglion cells. The cones are responsible for color vision. Your highest density is in the eye center, the so-called yellow spot. Here is where the retinal area is located, which provides the highest spatial resolution. The rods are responsible for light-dark sight and have a higher sensitivity than cones. They are therefore important for seeing at night. They are mainly found in the outer region of the visual field. The ganglion cells containing melanopsin photoreceptors are not considered, since they convey no picture in the central nervous system, but merely brightness information to control the internal clock.


    Pineal gland
    The pineal gland is also called the epiphysis or pineal organ; Eng. "Pineal gland", med pineal. The pineal gland is located in the center of the brain and is developmentally an evagination of the diencephalon. The main product of the pineal gland is the hormone melatonin, which is secreted in darkness into the blood.



    Place lighting
    Place lighting provides illuminance for special visual performance requirements or for intensive use in communication space zones, which lies above the level of general lighting. The use of separately switchable, fixed lamps is advantageous, e.g. ceiling, wall and hanging lamps. Additionally they work effectively - as portable - floor and table lamps.


    Point light
    It is the term given to a point light source from which a directional light emanates. Point light sources enable optimal steering of light.


    Point outlet
    Spot outlet, single or constructed, connected directly to the network, including connection-profile of commercial power rails for mechanical and electrical connection of luminaires with a compatible - adapter. Useful for the variable use of existing lights.


    Polygon is a geometric term meaning multiple sides. For example, triangle, square, hexagon.


    Power supply
    A power supply is a device that supplies electrical power for equipment or assemblies that need other voltages and currents than those provided by the electricity grid. Output voltage and maximum output current may be fixed or variable. Usually a power supply includes a transformer that converts the AC input voltage to the required output value. If the output DC voltage is required, the power supply also contains a rectifier.


    Prism grid
    Used for light control of lamps or daylight control through lighting calculations or by total reflection of light by prismatic elements.


    Protection is indicated in IP values. These specify the density of an electrical system.




    Protection class
    For the electrical safety of luminaires protection measures are required in order to prevent metal parts from causing voltage in case of an error.


    Protective low voltage
    A circuit with a low rated voltage (in volts) has low voltage protection. Although it is fed from circuits with a higher voltage, it is safely separated from them. Lights shall be equipped for operation with safety extra-low voltage, they have the protection class III.  

    Quartz glass
    Piston of halogen bulbs are made of quartz glass. It is a glass, which in contrast to the conventional glass contains no additions of sodium carbonate or calcium oxide, so it is basically made from pure silica. 

    Rail system
    Rail systems are usually carriers of low-voltage lighting and are used for power management and for securing the filament. The rails are available in different lengths. They can also be shorowned if necessary to any desired length. Using wall or ceiling brackets of different lengths and shapes, the rail can lead their run everywhere. Transformers are used to power the lighting system. The power input to the system can be done by wall, ceiling mount or rail connector or directly to the transformer. There are different types of radiators: rigid, easy swiveling, dual-swivel mounted and pendant luminaires. A wide range of accessories make it possible to meet even unusual lighting needs. Power rails are often used in shops due to the versatile lighting.




    Ratios of materials
    The incidence of light on matter (e.g. window glass) can be divided into three different phenomena. A portion is reflected, a portion is absorbed (absorbed by the material) and the rest is transmitted. The resulting light-current components are referred to as Fr (reflected light current), Fa (absorbed light power) and Ft (transmitted luminous flux).


    Reading light
    A reading lamp increases the reading pleasure many times when the reading lamp has the right brightness, the correct position and the correct distance. It is extremely suitable if combined with a flood light reading lamp. With this combination, you have a direct light onto your book or magazine (newspaper), while having a discreet backlight at the same time. Also, table lamps are ideal as reading lamps. Since each person has a different sensitivity to light, make sure that your reading lamp is bright enough and also possibly dimmable.


    Recessed floor light
    Floor lights are spots, spotlights or headlights that are embedded in the floor and radiate the light upward.

    Shrubs and trees can be lit outdoors from below. In use at trails, steps and terraces, they also ensure the safety of guests and visitors. A floor light should be walked on and driven by in any case and can provide a protection class IP 65 or IP 67.


    Recessed luminaire
    Recessed ceiling lights are suitable for mounting in cavities or ceilings. Most of the light is not visibly built into the ceiling, and often the light emitting aperture closes flush from the ceiling.


    Recessed spotlights
    The luminaire body with recessed spotlights is fixed into the ceiling, wall, shelf or floor, so that the covering of the lights is completed with the surrounding surfaces.


    Recessed wall light
    Recessed wall luminaires are suitable for field lighting, and can be used as part of the general lighting or additionally provide accent lighting. They mostly belong to the same "lamp family" design.


    Reflectance indicates how much percent of the incoming light flux on a surface is reflected. Bright areas have a high reflectance, dark areas have a low reflectance: White walls reflect up to 85 percent of the light, a bright wood paneling still up to 35 per cent, red bricks, however, only up to 15 percent. The darker the room is furnished, the more light is needed to achieve the same illuminance on the working plane.


    Reflection refers to the ability of surfaces to throw back incoming light. The ratio of the incoming to the reflected optical power is the reflectance. A matt white paint diffusely reflects about 80%. In areas with low degrees of reflection more light must be used to achieve a sufficient level of illumination.


    Reflectors are light-guiding systems based on reflective surfaces. They are specular or diffuse according to the law of reflection. Stray reflectors are usually painted white. Efficiency and light distribution are determined primarily by the depth of the lamp and the dimension of the reflector. Their shape has little influence. In reflectors, however, which are now made almost entirely of polished and anodized aluminum, the reflector contour plays an important role.


    Reflector lamp
    Reflector bulbs have a built-in reflector (internally mirrored glass flask). It directs the light and determines the beam angle. Reflectors are installed in normal incandescent lamps, PAR lamps, as well as in low-voltage and high-voltage halogen lamps.


    Refraction refers to changes in light direction when switching between media of different densities. The refractive index indicates the refractive power of a material.


    Relevant shell lamp
    Such a lamp is for example a ground spot that must be planned in the shell construction phase. For the installation of such recessed floor radiator different trades (screed, flooring, underfloor heating, etc.) must be coordinated. The best bet is to turn to a lighting designer.


    Cell layer in the posterior wall which include among other things, the ganglion cells, photoreceptor cells, and the information processing neurons. The retina consists of the photoreceptor cells and absorbs the light sensations, processes them, and transmits them through the optic nerve to the brain.


    Retina components
    Cell layer in the posterior wall, which includes among other things, the ganglion cells, photoreceptor cells, and the information processing neurons. (See retina)


    Retrofit lamp
    Modern lights, especially LEDs, will be indicated as retrofit lamps, which are provided with classical bases, such as the standard E27 or E14 bases. Through the use of retrofit lamps you can save up to 90% energy as opposed to the use of incandescent lamps.


    RGB color mixing
    The additive color mixing of light with the aid of lamps in the primary colors red, green and blue correspond to the abbreviated character string "RGB." RGB color mixing is particularly suitable for decorative lighting with color dynamics. Especially for LEDs the RGB mixing principle will be used to generate white light. Colored fluorescent lamps for this purpose are denoted as RGB lamps. In many cases an extra white light source is used (RGBW color mixing) in order to achieve a better white light.


    Additive color mixing the primary colors red, green, blue and an additional white light source. The additional white light allows for mapping of the entire RGB color space, and the Planck's curve (tones of white light of 2,000 to 10,000 degrees Kelvin).  

    Saving lamp
    Saving lamp is the colloquial term for a compact fluorescent lamp, as these require relatively less power than a conventional bulb.


    SCN (Suprachiasmatic nucleus)
    Suprachiasmatic nucleus: A collection of several thousand neurons, located above (supra) the junction of the optic nerve (optic chiasm). It is now regarded as the main regulator of the circadian clock. Each of the neurons in the SCN has its own internal clock. Normally, the internal clocks of these cells go synchronously, which could increase the timer signal to a common strong control signal for the internal clock.


    Secondary Reflector Systems
    Secondary reflector systems are lights that scatter the light over a mirror and draw in the desired direction. The light itself is generated in a projector (light launcher). The mirror consists of individual facets, which split the light beam directed at them; in this way glare is avoided, as they would occur in a 1:1 image of the light source in the mirror. In the design of street lights, the mirror is usually the roof lights. Most orders are current for interior lights, projector and mirror in which no unit form as a lamp in the classic sense, but are installed separately from each other.


    Semi-cylindrical illuminance
    The semi-cylindrical illuminance (eHz) - measured in lux - describes the proportions of the vertical illuminance falling on a semi-cylindrical measuring face. It is a prerequisite for the recognition of incoming people. On outdoor parking, for example 1.5 to 5 lux (measured 1.5 meters above the ground) is suitable.


    Sensor light
    A sensor light brings convenience and safety. Through the light sensor, a light is switched on automatically. This spares you the path to the light switch. If there is no longer any movement in the area of the sensor, the light turns off after a specified time frame.





    Service life of a lamp
    The service life of a light source is determined e.g. for light bulbs after the failure of 50% of the lamps, the lifetime for discharge lamps and LEDs is calculated by the reduction of fixed light output up to 50%.


    Shading / shadow
    Shadow detail is required for spatial vision and the perception of shapes and structures. Lighting is to bring about a balanced shading though a balanced ratio between horizontal and vertical illuminance. Lamps whose light distribution complements are used e.g. ceiling lights with uniform-diffuse and spotlights with directed light distribution.


    Sodium vapor high pressure lamp
    Sodium vapor high-pressure lamps have excellent luminous efficiency. Their rated life is high. The color reproduction is moderate to good. Sodium vapor high pressure lamps are operated with a ballast and igniter. They need to burn a few minutes and a cooling phase before re-ignition. In some forms an immediate re-ignition with special igniters or the electronic ballast is possible.


    Sodium vapor low-pressure lamp
    Sodium vapor low-pressure lamps have a very high light yield, but extremely poor color rendering properties. This limits the range of application: As their monochromatic yellow light mist and fog penetrates well and its spectrum is ideally suited for surveillance cameras, these lamps are used in the illumination of ports, tunnels and pedestrian crossings as well as for protecting property. The operation of sodium vapor low-pressure lamps require a ballast tuned to it.


    Solar garden lamp / solar garden light
    During the day a solar garden light converts natural light into electrical energy. This is released at night in the form of artificial light. The LED version is practically maintenance-free and extremely durable.


    Solar lamp
    A solar lamp is fitted with a dimmer switch, and automatically turn itself on when it gets dark. The biggest advantage of a solar lamp is its flexibility. During the day a solar module converts natural light into electrical energy, which is then stored. This energy is supplied again in the dark to power lighting equipment whereby artificial light arises. Solar lights require no outlet, no power line and no switch.


    Solar light
    For a solar lamp there is no need for power lines, electric sockets or light switches. If your solar lights are already equipped with an LED lamp and a dimmer switch, you must no longer take care of them. The solar light automatically turns on at dusk.


    Solar lighting
    During the day a solar module converts natural light into electrical energy, which is stored. This energy is supplied again in the dark to power lighting equipment whereby artificial light is produced. LEDs are often used for this type of lighting based on their low energy consumption.


    Solar sphere
    A solar sphere consists of a solar panel which is mounted on a spherical light. This converts natural light into electric energy, which is then stored. In the dark, a built-in bulb is powered with this energy. Depending on the density of the sphere shell it can be used in water, outdoors or indoors.


    Spatial light
    The spatial illumination is uniform illumination of the entire space, which creates the same good visual conditions at all points. This is often used in rooms with flexible use.


    Spectral color
    The wavelengths of visible electromagnetic radiation of light range from 380 to 780 nanometers (nm, 1 nm = 10-9 m). Each wavelength owns a particular spectral color. Due to the refraction of light the colors of the spectrum are visible. In a rainbow, the light is diffracted, for example by acting as prisms raindrops. See also: spectral power distribution.


    Spectral power distribution
    Each wavelength of light has a certain spectral color. White light is made up of a variety of spectral colors of varying intensity. The more lines the spectrum "fill", the better the color rendering of lamps. Lamps have different spectral power distributions depending on their types: temperature radiators have a continuous spectrum, with high-pressure and low-pressure discharge lamps corresponding to the spectrum of the composition of the ingredients - for example, the halogen in metal halide lamps or the mixing ratio of the phosphors in fluorescent lamps. Daylight also has a certain spectral distribution.


    Spot - poignant light. They set the tone. But they must be used in moderation, otherwise they lose their effect on doing something carefully.


    Spot lamp
    Spot lamps focus the beams onto a small area, thus setting skillful accents. Spot lamps are ideal for e.g. sculptures or works of art on the wall to set the scene.


    Spotlights are lamps for which it is possible to direct light. These transmitters can be targeted for accent lighting. This is possible either by reflector lamps or by the design of the radiator itself.


    Spot lights
    The site is a job that requires a particularly conscientious illumination. Spot lights ensure that no accidents happen due to faulty lights. Construction lights give the necessary light for good results, because only those who can see well, can work well. Provide yourself with the correct construction lights for the necessary clarity on your site. We can help you find the right construction lights with our great range of construction lights.


    Stainless steel outdoor lamp
    Stainless steel outdoor lights are timelessly elegant. They are always an eye-catcher, whether objectively-modern or classically playful. The outdoor lights are available as wall or bollard light, path light as well as a spotlight.


    Standard colorimetric
    It's a system for arithmetical calculation of body and light colors. This system provides a two-dimensional diagram in which all the chromaticity and color blends are displayed in the saturation levels. Here, each of the color mixtures are on a straight plane and the light colors of temperature radiators located on the curve defined as the Planckian curve.


    Standing lamp
    See floor lamp


    Stool light
    A stool lamp has the size between a table lamp and a standing lamp.

    The term, "stools light" comes from the fact that these lights are usually on a side table or stools. Stools lights are modern, classic or country style.


    Strain relief
    Strain relief prevents that flexible supply lines are broken, for example, by the weight of a hanging lamp or improper use of the terminals of sockets, connectors or plugs, which may damage the lamp and cause a short circuit. The correct cable length must be set during the installation of a hanging lamp to ensure that the strain relief in the canopy properly sits and securely holds.


    Street lighting
    The light from street lighting creates safety. People capture over 80 percent of sensations with their eyes. Therefore poor viewing conditions increase the risk to all road users. The public safety obligation (derived from Section 823 of the Civil Code: damages) includes a duty to provide street lighting in built-up areas and on stretches of road where special hazards are present, such as crossings, bottlenecks or passages with structural damage.


    An object is called symmetric if it remains unchanged (invariant) against certain transformations.

    Table lamp
    Table lamps are small portable floor lamps on tables or shelves. Most known are desk lamps. They radiate the light steered by umbrellas or reflectors mainly downward and to the side.


    Task area lighting
    Here individual workstations, or insular areas are often lit individually, while the remaining space has a different level of lighting. The workspace-related lighting carries with it the fact, that different jobs and tasks also require a custom lighting.


    Task lighting
    Task lighting is another term for workplace lighting. Single lights illuminate a single workstation. Thus, the lighting can be adjusted to the specific needs of the workplace.


    Task lights
    Good workplace lamps are mainly equipped with energy-saving compact fluorescent lamps. In the meantime they are also available in LED. A freely rotatable and swiveling lamp head with good glare control ensures safe operation at different workplaces.


    Task zone lighting
    Task zone lighting is available as separate illumination light for individual task areas. A typical example is the working space on the desk, which is identical to the task area on the desk. In this example, the task zone lighting is implemented with a desk lamp, task lights are used in handwork and industry. The advantage for the user: It can adjust the brightness and light to suit individual needs. Task zone lighting shall only be used as a supplement to a room or workspace-related lighting in accordance with DIN EN 12464-1 "Lighting of work places in interiors". In workplaces with difficult visual tasks - that's always the case when small details need to be recognized - is the additional light of a workplace indispensable.


    Thermal radiation
    All matter that is at a temperature above the absolute zero point of 0 degrees Kelvin emits electromagnetic radiation due to the thermal motion of atoms. The thermal radiation has a continuous spectrum, which is defined as a function of the temperature and emissivity of the radiating material.


    Thermal radiators
    Thermal radiators are incandescent and halogen lamps of 230 V, or 12 V. Thermal radiators generate light through a filament of tungsten wire that is heated and thus glows. The energy used is emitted not only as light but to a large extent also as heat.


    Third photoreceptor
    Sensory cells in the human eye convey the information on the brightness of the environment through the SCN to the pineal gland, and thus affect the production and secretion of the hormone melatonin.


    Tiffany lamp
    Tiffany lamps were designed by the artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. The combination of brilliant, shiny glass and light make Tiffany lamps so popular. Small pieces of stained glass are brought with the assistance of different tools into the desired shape and assembled with copper foil and soldering equipment into a true work of art. The color of the lenses and the design of the lights give Tiffany lamps a colored, warm light.


    Torch light
    Torch lights are also known under the term wall torches. The torch light is similar in shape to the torches with which the rooms were illuminated in earlier times. This original, archaic style makes the special charm of the torch light. Today's torch lights don't give off sooty smoke anymore, but they still spread an atmosphere that is unique. This applies equally to the modern as well as for the ancient versions. Torch lights are suitable for outdoor use as walkway lights or lighting of balcony and terrace areas.


    Torchiere (also up lights), usually as floor or wall lights, these turn their light mainly up to the ceiling, with adjustable reflectors also on the part of the wall close to the ceiling. From there it is reflected as indirect lighting in the room. For torchiere with direct light portion the reflector is translucent down.


    Transformers are voltage converowrs. Lighting requires the use of transformers that convert mains voltage of 230 volts (primary side) into low voltage (secondary side) of 6, 12 or 24 volt. Low-voltage spotlights and other low-voltage lamps without integrated transformers must be operated with upstream individual or collective transformers. The conventional transformer technology works with different windings on the primary side and secondary side. Toroidal mains transformers are frequently used. Electronic transformers are smaller, more compact, lighter, quieter, and more energy efficient.


    Transient adaptation
    Transient adaptation is the term used for the special case that occurs when the eye must repeatedly switch back and forth between a high and a low light level. This is the case when the environment has very high contrast, such as when a computer monitor (<200 cd/m2) and a sunlit area of the window (> 5,000 cd/m2) are visible side by side without head rotation. This state will have a speedy eye fatigue result. The Transient Adaptation Factor (TAF) is an English term to refer to the relative reduction of perceived contrast by the re-adaptation between different light environments.


    Translucency is the light transmittance of a partial body.


    Transmission is the material property to let pass the incoming radiation unhindered. A measure of this property is the transmission t.


    Transparent materials
    Transparent materials are of great importance in luminaire. The use of glass is classic. For decorative lights, such as pendant lamps, floor and table lamps lightweight materials are used, which make it possible to give the lights a lot of volume to shield the light source effectively.


    Triplex glass
    Glass is generally a mixture of silica sand (60%), soda ash (19%), dolomite / lime (15%) and other materials (6%). Depending on the desired properties of the glass, this mixture is changed. Triplex consists of three layers of glass and has therefore a much higher quality than, for example, Duplex glass. We start with a crystal layer, followed by a layer of opal and the triplex is completed again with a crystal layer. Through these three layers, a better distribution of light and light output is achieved. The first layer directs the light from the lamp in the whole vitreous, thus ensuring an optimal distribution. The middle layer of opal then allows for the soft and pleasant light of the lamp.


    The first "artificial light" was created by our ancestors in the form of fires, torches and later candles and oil lamps. A higher level of lighting and a sophisticated lighting was only possible with the invention of gas lamps which were operated via a gas pipe system and later with electric lamps and the electrification of buildings.


    Twilight switch
    Twilight switch automatically turns on one or more lights in response to the on and off daytime brightness. Evenings prepare residents and guests for a friendly welcome with timely and reliable automatic switching of lights on the way to the house, at the door or at the corners of the house. Unwanted visitors are kept away. The photo resistor is a light-sensitive switch mounted externally to the north or east. It is not exposed to any artificial light source.

    UGR - value
    The method of the "Unified Glare Rating" (UGR) has been developed by the International Commission on Illumination CIE (Commission International de l'Eclairage) to unify the evaluation of glare around the world.


    UL listing
    UL listing means that an UL representative has tested the product samples and determined that the product meets the UL requirements. These requirements are primarily based on the nationally recognized safety standards published by UL.

    References to UL and the UL listing may include:

    • the UL Listing Mark
    • the UL Listing Mark for Canada (if applicable)
    • the combined Listing Mark for Canada / USA (if applicable)

    For packaging the UL logo can be used alone, as long as the product (unlike listed components in or in connection with the product) carries the complete UL Listing Mark.



    Underwater lighting
    Lights and headlights, which may be used underwater, meet special operational safety requirements: underwater lights and pool lights in floating or rigid positions must be operated with safety extra-low voltage, single or multiple transformers must be connected upstream. Basically, it is advisable to ask the expert for the installation of these special lights for installation and operation safety regulations apply.


    Uniform illumination
    The uniformity of illumination is dependent on the type and arrangement of the lamps, the geometry of the installation, and the nature of the adjacent surfaces, and constitutes a uniform distribution of brightness, which leads to a substantially shadow-free light.


    Uplights (also: Torchiere), usually as floor or wall lights, turn their light mainly up to the ceiling, and also on the part of the wall close to the ceiling with the assistance of adjustable reflectors. From there, it is reflected as indirect lighting in the room. In uplights with direct light portion the reflector is transparent down.


    UV blocking filters
    UV blocking filters are to be used for prolonged illumination of light sensitive objects with high illuminance. They reduce the fading of colors. The manufacturers of radiators provide UV blocking filters as additional parts. Halogen low voltage reflector lamps with windscreen have among others the function of reducing UV radiation.


    UV protection
    Halogen bulbs produce UV rays, which can be dangerous for humans. Therefore, a halogen lamp should only be used in conjunction with a lamp with protection glass - unless the bulb has already UV protection itself.

    VDE mark
    VDE (Association for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies). This character documents safety and conformity to standards of an electro-technical product against electrical, mechanical, thermal, and other hazards.


    A version is defined as the mechanical support for a replaceable light source, and it is at the same time the electric current of the transfer point. A basic distinction can be made between plugs and sockets. The material may be metal, ceramic or plastic. To eliminate confusion, there is a particular version for each light source which differs in type and size.


    Visual comfort
    Visual comfort describes the well-being, and the experience present in the room because of lighting. Visual comfort lighting quality refers in particular to color reproduction and harmonious distribution of brightness. A lighting system that provides visual comfort, should also comply with all other quality characteristics. So for example light should not be blinded.


    Visual field
    Area of the environment, which lies before the eyes and can be imaged on the retina without any eye movement. The visual field of one eye is limited by size and optical properties of the components of the eye (cornea, lens, iris, vitreous body) and the stocking of the retina with photoreceptor cells (rods and cones). The visual fields of both eyes overlap significantly in humans.


    Visual performance
    The visual performance is determined by the visual acuity of the eyes and the difference in sensitivity of the eyes to light and dark vision. Also, the time in which, for example, a motorist detects differences in brightness, shapes, colors and details (perceptual speed), affects the visual performance.


    Voltage converowr
    Voltage converowr or converowrs convert a short electric voltage to another. A transducer may be a transformer that converts a voltage into a smaller one. Each transformer is thus a voltage converowr. Using a suitable transducer and the dimmer can be used for regulating the brightness of lamps.

    Wall lamp
    Wall lamp is the colloquial term for a wall light.


    Wall light
    Wall lights are suitable for area lighting, are used as part of the general lighting or additionally provide accent lighting. They mostly belong to the same "lamp family" design. Wall lamps for outdoor lighting can be mounted on the front door and around the house.


    Wall torch
    Wall torches resemble their shape after a torch. In the lower part of the lighting fixture, the technology is hidden. The upper part is the actual lighting unit with the lamp, e.g. the luminaire.


    Warm white
    Light colors under 3,300 Kelvin are known as "warm white".


    White-and-white mixture
    The color mixture of white light lamps, mostly warm white and daylight white is used as a white-white-mix especially for adaptive lighting. Warm white light color contains a higher proportion of red, corresponding to the morning and evening light. Daylight white light color contains a higher proportion of blue - like the midday light. So the lighting conditions of the daily course can be simulated, in particular the good color rendering properties of lamps used are preserved for all lighting moods.


    Wide beam
    Lighting with a relatively large beam angle.



    Wire and rod system
    Low-voltage wire and rod system technology make lighting flexible, much like the classic conductor rail. Low voltage spotlights and lights can be attached at any point, and put on at any time. They are screwed, clamped or fixed with plug-in adapters. The ropes and rods or metal bands provide at the same time the power to the individual lights. They are mounted directly on walls or suspended from the ceiling; fasteners allow for geometric structures. Important: The transformer must always be operated with the rated load. Wire and rod systems are also available for lamps with mains voltage of 230 volts.


    Workplace lighting
    Work place lighting or single-site lighting makes light available for individual seats in the room, which is aligned to specific visual tasks, such as reading, writing, or computer work. In general, work place lighting complements the general lighting.


    Working plane
    A working plane refers to the horizontal or vertical surface to be illuminated. In offices, for example, 0.75 meters (table height) above the ground or in the stairwell a lower level accordingly.  

    Xenon lamp
    Xenon lamps are discharge lamps, which are filled with the inert gas xenon. Its light has a high luminance, and is produced by an electric arc discharge. The light color of xenon lamps corresponds to daylight white. Common applications of xenon lamps are film screenings, studio lighting and car headlights. In car headlights xenon lamps are particularly noted for their durability (four times longer than halogen bulbs) and the higher luminous flux and luminous efficiency.