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Ingo Schaer



Have you ever noticed the little light that appears in the opening credits of Pixar animated films? This is the desk lamp L-1 made by Luxo that stood on the desk of director and producer John Lasseter in 1986 and is the foundation of the success of Pixar. John Lasseter produced the computer animated short film “Luxo Jr.” for Pixar Animations Studios, which was promptly nominated for an Oscar in 1986. The cheerfully jumping lamp therefore became the company symbol of Pixar.

L-1 by Jacobsen

L-1 by Jacobsen


A design icon is being created…
The workplace lamp Luxo L-1 was designed by the Norwegian industrialist and designer Jac Jacobsen, founder of Luxo, in 1937 and celebrates its 75th anniversary this year. As part of a shipment of sewing machines from England Jacobsen received two spring balanced lights that looked like cranes back then. He was always interested in art and was fascinated by the strange looking luminaires with their high functionality and timeless beauty.

Although the technical invention was ingenious, Jacobsen soon realized the simple design behind it. The L-1 became well known quickly. It increased productivity in offices, educational and health facilities and industrial plants. It became a style icon among architects and designers from around the world.
The production of the Luxo L-1 lamp began in 1937 under the name Luxo. The word comes from Latin and means “I give light”. The secret was the spring-balanced arm: The mobility of the light and the ability to direct the light exactly where it is needed changed our working environment forever. That was the beginning of a large range of lighting products that were ergonomically correct, could be customized and prevented glare and other health related problems.



New color edition by Le Corbusier


To celebrate its 75th anniversary a limited edition of the L-1 is being sold, for which the Finnish architect Vesa Honkonen designed a number of colors. “When I was looking for new colors for the L-1, I found that the industrial colors that we use today do not fit properly. I was of the opinion that the new L-1 colors should have the same depth as the L-1. So I went back to the 1930s and to the color palette which was developed by Le Corbusier in 1931: the polychrome architectural. As an architect, painter and artist, he created his own palette for use in architecture.”




The limited edition appears in a range of colors from the unique color keyboard of Le Corbusier (les claviers de couleurs), which first appeared in 1931. The L-1 colors for the limited edition have been selected from the keyboard color velvet (velour), which Le Corbusier found particularly suitable for office environments. The new edition will appear in shades of rouge rubia 32101, ombre naturelle 3132140 and vert anglais pale 32042. “The L-1 now has a new skin from the 1930s, creating harmony based on a color system by combining matching colors,”says Vesa Honkonen.


For another 75 years …


Luxo is also thinking about the future, because the 75th anniversary of the L-1 is celebrated by the introduction of a LED version. The “L-1 LED” is fitted with a 6-watt module with dimmable LEDs that produce a bright, warm light. It also has a timer function: the light turns off automatically after four or nine hours to save power. The “L-1 LED” has exactly the same arm structure and shape as the original lamp from 1937. Modern push button technology in a characteristic casing from the 1930s allows dimming and energy-saving timer functions. Due to the high durability of a LED you can be sure that the “L-1 LED” will last at least another 75 years. And it is really due to the high quality and workmanship, the simplicity and the timeless design that the L-1 has survived 75 years without any problems and will live on.






Jac Jacobsen

Jac Jacobsen

The L-1 and its inventor Jac Jacobsen
The Norwegian designer Jac Jacobsen (1901-1996) was in his mid 30 when he invented the L-1.
As part of a shipment of sewing machines from England, he received two spring balanced lights. He was enthusiastic about the strange looking luminaires with their functionality.
1937 Jacobsen designed the L-1 along the lines of the spring balanced lights and their sophisticated, but simple design.
Already in 1945, the Illinois Institute of Technology Fortune placed the workplace lamp L-1 on the list of the 100 best products ever to be manufactured.
Jacobsen’s views with regards to competition were decidedly modern: “Competition is good for us. It makes the products better – and who really looks for quality selects the L-1.”


As of today, many museums exhibit the L-1 as an example of classic luminaire design.
The demand for the light is still very high. To date, it has sold more than 25 million times.

Ingo Schaer



When it comes to living and design styles, you can distinguish people by their tastes and preferences: romantic, visionary, minimalist, or close to nature. What kind of light type are you?


Inout by Metalarte

Inout by Metalarte

And which light fixture do you prefer? Maybe the goofy “Inout” by Metalarte


People are being distinguished with regards to housing and design according to specific characteristics and preferences. When it comes to lighting design, you can distinguish some types here as well. We introduce you to seven light types that can assist you in finding suitable lights.



The minimalist-modern type
Do you feel attracted to elegant and prestigious living spaces with clean lines? Then you are probably the minimalist-modern type. Your dominant colors are black and white, but also the fine silver sheen of stainless steel. You enjoy bright airiness and symmetry, for you everything is purist, functional and straightforward. Your living quarters are decorated in a minimalist interior style, with few furniture items only, and only the most necessary is present. Important to you are high-quality workmanship and functionality. As materials prevail glass, metal and modern plastics. Your preferred lights are low-profile and neutral-factual. You prefer slim LED lights – not only at your desk – but it could also be classics like the Tizio or Wagenfeld light. You appreciate the bright light from retaining wall and ceiling luminaires, that don’t draw attention to the light source itself.


The Scandinavian design type
You are impressed by the Scandinavian lifestyle with clear patterns without embellishments and flourishes and the bright colorful palette of the North, which is dominated by white and subtle sky blue. The motto of your mainly practical design might be “keep it simple”. The design of your lights does not follow a strict selection scheme because you are open to both simple shaped pendant lamps with metal screen as well as refined objects that are composed of translucent wood veneers. The shapely and simple classic in the tradition of Poul Henningsen are also on the list of your favorites, as well as the widespread lampshades made of paper and plastic, where items will be inserted into one another in order to not require any additional support structure. The light from these lamps is mild and is distributed diffusely in your room.

Wood lamps by Secto Design

Wood lamps by Secto Design



For friends of the Scandinavian Style (Octo pendant lamp)


The Asian-Japanese type
Do you love the simplicity of Asian rooms with bamboo, lacquer surfaces and paper lanterns? Then you belong to the Asian-Japanese design type. In our latitudes the simplicity and naturalness of the Japanese home decor is especially appreciated, which is characterized by flexible and multi-functional rooms, reduced furniture, tatami mats as well as room dividers and lamps made of shoji paper. The mostly symmetrically shaped lampshades around a central axis emit a mild and diffused light.

Gaku by Ingo Maurer

Gaku by Ingo Maurer


Japanese inspiration meets organic forms (Gaku from the light series “The MaMo Nouchies”)



The emotionally-colorful type
You have a penchant for sumptuous colors, whether the bright colors of the Sixties with their orange living environments by Verner Panton or fashionable shades such as pink or turquoise. Expressive wallpaper might cover your walls, and your chairs are made of plastic or plywood. When it comes to lights, you like both colorful lampshades made of fabric, metal or plastic as well as Sixties classics like the legendary lava lamps. The discreet Spluegen-Braeu-pendant light will delight you, just as the spiral light by Panton or its psychedelic sister, the gaudy globe lamp from 1969.


The extravagant-individualistic type
You prefer high quality furnishing and have an eye for the form language of your objects: The furniture might be partly plain and your home might be of white grandeur and restraint, yet your design objects are often extravagant and always especially selected. Your friends are not normal people, but are chosen individualistically. You have a soft spot for technology and lighting, and the design of your lighting fixtures is extremely important to you. After careful consideration you might chose light art objects by Ingo Maurer or Ross Lovegrove, which you then place like a sculpture in your home.



Trask Lamp by MIO Culture

Definitely something for individualists



The innovative and visionary type
When you see the first usable versions of the latest OLED lamp during your trips to special light shops or exhibition, you feel irresistibly attracted to the new technology and its aesthetic appeal. Because you are one of the few innovative visionary lighting pioneers who have a pronounced affinity to technology, style-conscious and you are courageous at the same time. With regards to absolute novelties you realize that even a pinch of irony might be involved, since a light fixture of the latest generation may turn out to be a mayfly. You are fascinated by the technology, and good lighting plays an important role in your perception.



The nature-loving type
You love coziness, and the colors of your home are gentle and kind. You consider brightly lit rooms as cool and sterile. With regards to your furniture you prefer regional and sustainable materials, therefore wool, felt, linen and oiled wood make your heart beat faster. You feel at home in a country style environment, where you can showcase your various antiques. Maybe you have already built a luminaire yourself and have come to appreciate the creative impulse. You appreciate elegant lamps made of wood, stone, paper or glass as well.


Lamps by Graypants

For nature lovers: These lamps are made of recycled carton


The classical-romantic type
You appreciate traditional values and require quality with regards to your furniture. Maybe you collect antiques or family heirlooms, because dignified elegance sets the tone for you. You prefer to live in an old building with high stucco ceilings and parquet flooring. Your preferred lights are often variations of classic chandeliers that give off a warm light. You prefer to dim your lights because glistening brightness does not suit you. You like to use modern interpretations of table lamps, which consist of classical foot, stem and shade as well. Since you are a romantics, you occasionally enjoy colored light which discreetly accompanies the scenery. And if you have settled in a Mediterranean environment, you choose harmonious lights made of wrought iron and frosted glass which emit your preferred light.

Ingo Schaer



Looking good – “fare bella figura” – is the credo that determines Italian design from the 60s until today. In addition to countless light classics you will also find a young, very active design scene.
Italian design manages to combine functionality and irony – and this recipe for success guarantees the offspring of young designers in their own country.



Floor lamp Battista by Nigel Coates

Floor lamp Battista by Nigel Coates


This is a light sculpture (Battista) made of wood with the special material Cristalflex



From industrial design to furniture design and cars – the Italian style stands out due to a combination of imagination and rigor. The style and design history of the 60’s was marked by two different influences: first, the violent eruption of a popular culture full of symbols and metaphors, and on the other hand the belief in a design, which should be perfect with regards to its form. Italian lighting designers were the first ones around the world that were able to transform the history of light into a work of art and created interiors in which people easily feel comfortable.



From this Zeitgeist companies such as Fontana Arte as artistic division of the then leading glass manufacturer Luigi Fontana developed. In the beginning Fontana Arte manufactured stained glass church windows, which can still be admired at the Milan Cathedral or the Cathedral of Brasilia. But Gio Ponti realized the potential of glass for the production of furnishing elements and turned to the production of lamps, small pieces of furniture and accessories. This year the company celebrates its 80th anniversary.



Honey by Rotaliana

Honey by Rotaliana

This lamp “Honey” is made of modular elements

Flos, Artemide, Luceplan



The decisive development took place during the boom years after World War II, when a large number of new companies emerged, whose aim was to establish shapely objects on the basis of solid craftsmanship. Furniture manufactures like Kartell (1949), Zanotta (1954) and Poltronova (1957) ventured into a new territory of aesthetics, and so did the lighting manufacturers Artemide (1959) and Flos (1962). In addition to emotional tendencies, rational works can be found, for example beautiful desk lamps.



Italian lighting design was primarily driven by the brothers Castiglioni, who created a number of lamps for the manufacturer Flos, which are by now some of the most famous design objects worldwide. The Italian architect and designer Ettore Sottsass was one of the most admired designers of his time. With the group “Memphis”, which he co-founded, he tried to counteract the strong prevailing consumption fetishism at the time. Sottsass designed numerous objects for companies such as Olivetti, Artemide, Alessi and Poltronova. Ernesto Gismondi, himself a member of the “Memphis” group and Sergio Mazza founded the lighting design company Artemide and contributed to the term “Made in Italy” as a design of quality in lighting design.


Planet by Foscarini

Planet by Foscarini

This round light fixture (Planet) made of textile creates new light accents every time



Artemide conducts research and development, laboratory and functional test in its technology centers, and thus controls the entire process chain of luminaire development. Some of the design classic made it to the design and art museums of the world, including the Tolomeo series of Michele de Lucchi and Giancarlo Fassini, which Artemide is still producing as of today. Michele de Lucci also joined the design group “Memphis”. His current project, which he founded in 1990 with headquarters in Milan and Rome and with which he realized his own design concepts for the manufacturing concept, is called “Produzione Privata”.


Luceplan has been located in Milan since 1950. Until the founding of the company the founder of the company, Ricardo Sarfatti, had already been working together with his father Gino Sarfatti in his company Arteluce. The design pieces of this company originally included not only lights but also tableware for daily use, such as furniture and typewriters, which were designed for the company Olivetti, or motor scooters in collaboration with Piaggio. The light “Hope“, which combines modern design with comfort, is not only one of the most innovative lights in recent years, but also quite rightly the winner of the prestigious Compasso d’Oro Award 2011. The designers Francisco Gomez Paz and Paolo Rizzatto are responsible for the design of the “Hope” light, a successful duo that sets new standards for creative and functional lighting design.

Oluce, Lumina, Catellani
A leading figure of Italian design was undoubtedly Vico Magistretti, who achieved world fame with such well-known luminaries such as the table lamp “Atollo”. Magristretti designed lamps and furniture for Artemide, Cassina and Kartell and worked for several years as art director for the luminaire manufacturer Oluce which still produces its classic true to original. The company was founded by Lumina Designer Tommaso Cimini in 1973. His first design was the design of “Daphine“, which can now be found in major art and design museums.



Daphine by Cimini

Daphine by Cimini

This lamp (Daphine) has become very popular



At the same time of the founding of the Memphis group two company owners, Carlo Urbinati and Alessandro Vecchiato, got to know each other. The newly created company Foscarini (1981) in Murano stands for experimenting with new materials. A few kilometers from the center of Bergamo lives and works the Italian designer Enzo Catellani. There you can also find the production facilities in an old mill and a generous showroom. Enzo Catellani’s light fixtures are expressive objects with their own poetic meaning. Each lamp is part of a series, but remains unique itself and always has its own creation story. Catellani already demonstrated many years ago that you can perfectly detach the design of a luminaire from lamps with tiny LED light sources.



The headquarters of Rotaliana in Trento is known as the “light laboratory” far beyond the borders of Italy. The combined know-how at Rotaliana enables productive solutions, such as “hybrid lamps”, that combine light and usefulness. The collection of lamps consists of fresh shapes and cool colors and adds a fashionable item to each living room.



Sospesa by Groppi

This pendant light (Sospesa) looks like a very thin layer of paper



Viabizzuno, Slamp, Knikerboker
The designer Mario Nanni founded the company Viabizzuno in 1994 as an expression of its project philosophy and his passion for light. Apart from numerous completed projects, Viabizzuno has now made a name for itself with its innovative lighting. Slamp was launched on the designer market in 1994. The company consists of Roberto Ziliani and a team of young, creative designers, including the architect Nigel Coates, Adriano Rachele, Luca Mazza or Stefano Papi. The lamps by Slamp are distinguished in particular by their capricious shapes and the special material Opalflex. The company Knikerboker consists of the brothers Gigi and Bebe Ranica. The creative Gigi was previously active in the fashion industry for several years. Knikerboker is known for its huge handcrafted light metal objects, many of which are produced according to customer requirements.


Italian design managed to combine functionality and irony – and this recipe for success guarantees the offspring of young designers in their own country. The Design Museum of Triennale in Milan dedicated a first-class exhibition not only to the history of Italian design, but also asked young designers to participate.


Ingo Schaer



Summer offers opportunities for unforgettable parties – whether in the garden, at the beach or by the pool. Discover the potential of emotional light moods outdoors!

You can create magical attraction points in your garden by effectively illuminating water areas or swimming pools.

Brasero by Gandia Blasco

Brasero by Gandia Blasco

Fire baskets create a romantic mood


Warm summer nights invite to grill outdoors or to celebrate atmospheric events. Your nightly garden gets a mysterious aura with good lighting, which differs significantly from what you perceive there during the day. Light in the garden is also decorative, because here the drama of light and shadow can be enjoyed much more than in the interior of the house, where there are practical considerations to be taking into account. Create emotions with light that you cannot only enjoy during your garden party, but every day instead.



You can only see your garden in the dark when you illuminate it. This way you create almost a second garden, a “garden of the night”. You should use the opportunity and change your familiar environment when you plan a party, to make it new and playful. Here, nothing has to be perfect – improvise and let many people immediately enjoy the result. You should not forget the aspect of color, since colors affect us much more than we think. If you have colored walls or colorful accessories, you should use spotlight for these color elements. You can also experiment with colored light, because a party with only white light might be considered dull.





Outdoor lights

Outdoor lights

Light scenes for balmy summer nights



It is not easy to develop the desired scenery, but imagine that you would create a stage for balmy summer nights that differs completely from what you are seeing there during the day.



Cool light furniture for the party


The play of light and shadow is a very important part of your party. Instead of evenly-lit areas, the contrasts of light and dark areas is more exciting with regards to a garden. Trees and shrubs can be illuminated with directional light via spotlights from behind. This produces striking silhouettes that come very close in comparison to a theater stage. Create magical attraction points in your garden by hanging beautiful lights in the trees, or illuminate any existing water surfaces. The non-moving water of a garden pond can appear slightly cloudy with direct light, therefore it might be better to focus the light on a wall instead, so that it can reflect in the water of the pond.



However, illuminated fountains or water games appear much livelier. Floating candles or waterproof luminaires placed between plants in the water are the simplest solution of illuminated water surfaces. A lighted pool does not only look very decorative; it should be well visible for security reasons as well. Therefore a dip in the pool in a balmy summer night is a special pleasure, since light and water are notoriously a combination for a double feel-good effect.


Piramide light and Tipi tent by Gandia Blasco

Piramide light and Tipi tent by Gandia Blasco


Pur beach romantic



LED products are ideally suited for monochrome or colored underwater lighting of pools, because they don’t use much power, virtually never have to be replaced and are small and resistant. However, for the electrical installation of underwater lights you should consult a specialist.



LED’s have a party!


Illuminated furniture, tables, or planters have a special character as well: objects made of opaque plastic often replace the little mood lights that otherwise characterize the seating arrangements. In addition, it is possible to regulate furniture and objects with a central lighting control, which allows you to change colors, brightness, and to switch the sequence as an own choreography. LED lights are particularly suitable for the lighting of a party, since they can shine in all colors and have minimal dimensions. They hardly appear as objects, are virtually maintenance-free and have a favorable energy balance. Classic and affordable party lights are candles in colored glasses, colorful lamps or torches.


Effective LED light


Tee candles are also available as a very innovative LED variant that simulates the flicker of a candle – simply do the test with your guests, and find out if they notice the difference between a real candle flame and a LED light. If you enjoy these effects, shells of fire are a nice alternative to a campfire. The flames are either generated by gas, so you can experience the mood of a real fire in a simple way, or you can use beam baskets or braziers, using really burning wood.

If you want to set up an outdoor bar at your party as well, then the option of light choices ranges from pleasant flickering lanterns on an elevated table to the professional version of backlight indoor illuminated counters, which shine through the plastic of the LED panels. Of course, you can also arrange colorful bottles in a cupboard, behind which you can place an elongated lamp and thereby easily create a beautiful light show. If you have fun in the planning, your party is going to be a real success, and everyone will experience an unforgettable evening.



Potter Outdoor





What light for what needs?



Ask yourself: what should I see? A certain dim lighting in the seating area is comfortable, but be careful with regards to stairs and water surfaces. For paths through the garden it is advisable to choose light sources that are not too bright, because otherwise the eye will be overwhelmed by the differences in brightness. Stair areas should be illuminated. Small wall lights near the ground can illuminate the steps quite unobtrusively.

Ingo Schaer


Do you know what the advantages of a LED are? Did you know that LEDs can get hot as well? And what actually is a LED bulb? Here you will find practical answers to 11 key questions.




This delicate LED lamp by Steng can be mounted to a wall parallel as well as in an angle.



1. What actually are LEDs, what are they made of and how do they work?


LEDs are light emitting diodes (short LED). They consist of several layers of semiconductors, which lead to electroluminescence when applying DC voltage, therefore they produce light from electricity. Due to their functional principle, LEDs are point-shaped light sources, about one millimeter in length, which emit light and are surrounded by a layer of plastic. In comparison, light bulbs are thermal radiators, in which a filament is heated so much that it produces light as a side effect and sends it in all directions. LEDs can produce light in the colors red, green, yellow, or blue; white light is produced by a blue LED that is coated with a yellow fluorescent layer or by additive mixing of red, green and blue (RGB) LEDs.


2. What are the advantages of an LED?


LEDs are much more energy-efficient and long-lasting bulbs or halogen lamps. Manufacturers specify a lifetime of up to 30,000 hours. This corresponds to about 5-6 years of continuous operation. LEDs are bright without a delay, can be turned on and off very often and can also be dimmed. They are resistant to mechanical stress and already reach higher color rendering properties than fluorescent lamps. The best RA value of a LED is 98, the average is almost 90 – close to the maximum of 100, which sunlight offers. The small and long-lasting LEDs emit hardly any infrared and ultraviolet radiation.


Copernico by Artemide

Copernico by Artemide

Copernico pendant by Artemide with 384 white LEDs create fascinating light accents


3. Do LEDs get hot as well


Contrary to common assumptions, LEDs do create heat, because their efficiency does not achieve 100 percent. But in comparison to temperature radiators such as light bulbs little infrared radiation is emitted; instead the heat is derived from the semiconductor component on the circuit board and is diverted to cooling elements made of metal or ceramic. LEDs are therefore very suitable for temperature-sensitive lighting. The temperature of the LEDs has a great impact on their lifetime: If the LED gets too hot, the life span decreases rapidly. Some inexpensive products do not keep the advertised promise, especially not in the area of heat dissipation.


4. Why are LEDs currently so important for consumers?


Some years ago LED lighting solutions were deployed mainly in the technical field and in street and traffic lighting, but the technical development of practical work lamps and luminaires for private consumers progressed through the step-by-step light bulb ban: As of September 2012 manufacturer are not allowed to produce any more traditional light bulbs. However, the surplus in storage can still be sold. Therefore the question about the replacement of traditional light sources arises. LED retrofits can be used in existing luminaires and gradually replace light bulbs and help save a large amount of electrical energy.


5. Where are LEDs being used?


The application of diode light evolved from small colored signal lights on electronic devices for LED modules in transport equipment and lighting in the automotive area. LED lamps are now often used in computer screens and lights. The efficient and focused light is especially suitable for shop, road, hotel and living room lighting. LEDS are ideal for orientation and outdoor lighting, because the long service time and the low power consumption will provide an economic payback.


Hanging bulb by Moree

Hanging bulb by Moree

Light fixture and lamp united: this LED-lamp looks very attractive as a pendant as well.



6. Can I easily replace a light bulb with a LED bulb?


There are special LED modules with plug-in or screw base in pear or candle shapes that can replace conventional light bulbs without any problems. These LED lamps with the well-known bases are known as retrofit lamps. They can easily be used in existing luminaires. There is also the whole range of the well-known forms of halogen lamps with the GU 4, GU 5 and MR 16 sockets in addition to the usual E27 and E14 screw bases. Many of the retrofit lamps can be dimmed and are available in different color temperatures: they range from warm white 2700 Kelvin to neutral white 4000 Kelvin to daylight-like cold white 6500 Kelvin.

The relationship between wattage and brightness (measured in lumens as luminous flux), as known from light bulbs, is being readjusted for LEDs, because a performance of 9 watt can correspond to a brightness of 400 lumen or more – depending on the efficiency, which in turn is being expressed in lumen per watt. Purchasing a lamp becomes therefore slightly more technical and offers more choices with regard to the technical characteristics of the lamps.


7. How much energy do LED bulbs save in comparison to conventional light bulbs?


LEDs do not only last 50 times longer than light bulbs, their efficiency is also much higher: the efficiently bundled light from a LED shines only in the desired direction and not all around like it happens with bulbs and consumes about 8 Watts instead of 60 watts light bulbs consume. For general lighting of a hallway with downlights, using LEDs, with a daily operating time of 12 hours, you can assume a payback time of less than four years compared to fluorescent lamps. After this time, the LED lighting saves electricity costs every year. There are no maintenance costs due to the long life of the LED.


8. What is the difference between a LED lamp and a LED light?


A LED lamp is a lamp that can resemble a conventional light bulb and also has the well-known screw socket E27 or E14. LED lights are technical novelties, because people were always searching for long-lasting light sources that are really small and efficient. LEDs have helped to change the current categories of lamp and light. The long life-span of over 30,000 hours has led to the association of lamp and light: it is no longer necessary to provide a device for exchanging the lamp in the light fixture. Lamp and LED grow old together.


Master LED Bulb DimTone

Master LED Bulb DimTone

Full-featured replacement for the incandescent lamp. This LED Philips lamp can be dimmed and has an E27 socket.


9. Where can I buy LED lamps and luminaires, and how much do they cost?


You can buy LED lamps in stores, via the Internet or at hardware stores. Due to the available advice, retailers are the better choice in comparison to a random purchase. Most likely you are used to buy light fixtures with regards to the wattage of the bulb, but due to the high efficiency of LED lamps you need to consider the required luminous flux in this case, which is measured in lumens. A LED in the form of a pear, like the traditional light bulbs, is available for about 10 Dollar. Brighter models cost 20 Dollar and more. On the other hand you can purchase LEDs, where the bulb is firmly connected and thus is part of the design of the lamp, in special retail shops or online shops. Depending on the design, the material, the technique and the quality of the product, prices range from 10 Dollar for simple recessed luminaires up to several hundred or thousand Dollar for high quality designer lamps.


10. How do I dispose of broken LED lamps?


Even though individual LEDs contain no mercury, they are considered electronic components and must therefore be disposed accordingly. Bring your old LED bulbs to the local electronics waste collection site in your area.


11. Are LEDs a health hazard?


LEDs are mercury-free in contrast to energy-saving light bulbs. However, they can cause blinding due to their great brightness, which is concentrated in small points of light. On the other hand starring into a bright halogen lamp is blinding as well. Very high-power LEDs generate an intense light, and you should not look directly into the LED, especially white and blue LEDs. The retina can be affected in the long by “blue light damages”. High performance LEDs (such as flash lights) do not belong the hands of children.

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